This section contains additional information not contained in the section Regulatory information.
Information: The information below is from the 2008 Stormwater manual and may therefore be outdated. It will be updated as time allows and as new contact information becomes available. If available, please send us updated information using the comment box at the bottom of this page.
- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): An agency of the US government established to provide leadership and support for the nation’s emergency management system so that States, local governments, and others can effectively prepare for, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. It consists of a national office and ten regional offices.
- Federal Emergency Management Agency Region 5, 536 South Clark St., Chicago, IL 60605, Telephone: (312) 408-5500
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): An agency of the US government established to conduct research and gather data about the global oceans, the atmosphere, space, and the sun. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts the seas and skies, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, and conducts research to improve understanding and stewardship of the environment. It consists of five major organizations: the National Weather Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, and NOAA Research.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 14th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Room 6217, Washington, DC 20230, Telephone: (202) 482-6090
- National Park Service (NPS): A bureau of the U.S. Department of the Interior that preserves the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The NPS cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation.
- 3131 Highway 53 South, International Falls, MN 56649-8904, Telephone: (218) 283-9821
- Headquarters, Suite 105, 111 Kellogg Blvd. E., St. Paul, MN 55101, Telephone: (651) 290.4160
- United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE): An agency of the US government established to provide engineering services to the United States, including: planning, designing, building and operating dams and other civil engineering projects; designing and managing the construction of military facilities for the Army and Air Force; providing design and construction management support for other Department of Defense and federal agencies. It consists of a national office, eight divisions in the US, 41 district offices in the US, Asia and Europe, and field offices throughout the world.
- United States Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District, 190 Fifth Street East, St. Paul, MN, 55101-1638, Telephone: (651) 290-5200
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA): An agency of the US government established to enforce federal pollution abatement laws and to implement various pollution prevention programs. The agency supervises environmental quality and seeks to control the pollution caused by solid wastes, pesticides, toxic substances, noise, and radiation and has established special programs in air and water pollution, hazardous wastes, and toxic chemicals. It also sponsors research in the technologies of pollution control. Ten regional offices facilitate coordination of pollution control efforts with state and local governments.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604, Telephone: (312) 353-2000
- Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources (BWSR): An administrative agency of the state for 91 soil and water conservation districts, 46 watershed districts, 23 metropolitan watershed management organizations, and 80 county water managers. The agency’s purpose, working through local government, is to protect and enhance the state’s irreplaceable soil and water resources by implementing the state’s soil and water conservation policy, comprehensive local water management, and the Wetland Conservation Act. It consists of a central office and eight field offices statewide.
- Board of Water and Soil Resources, Central Office, 520 Lafayette Road North, St. Paul, MN, 55155, Telephone: (651) 296-3767
- Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA): An agency of the state government whose purpose is to work toward a diverse agricultural industry that is profitable as well as environmentally sound; to protect public health and safety with regard to food and agricultural products; and to ensure orderly commerce in agricultural food products. It consists of a central office and over 80 offices/work sites throughout Minnesota.
- Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 90 West Plato Boulevard, St. Paul, MN 55107, Telephone: (651) 297-2200
- Minnesota Department of Health (MDH): A public health agency of the state government that works with local public health agencies, federal health agencies, and other organizations to operate programs that protect and improve the health of entire communities, and programs that promote clean water, safe food, quality health care, and healthy personal choices. It consists of four locations in the Twin Cities metropolitan area and seven district offices in greater Minnesota.
- Minnesota Department of Health, P.O. Box 64975, St. Paul, MN, 55164-0975, Telephone: (651) 215-5800
- Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR): An agency of the state government whose purpose is conserve and manage the state’s natural resources, to provide outdoor recreation opportunities, and to provide for commercial uses of natural resources in a way that creates a sustainable quality of life. It consists of a central office and four regional offices statewide.
- Department of Natural Resources, Central Office, Division of Waters, 500 Lafayette Road, St. Paul, MN 55155-4032, Telephone: (651) 296-4800
- Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT): An agency of the state government whose purpose is to develop and implement policies, plans and programs for aeronautics, highways, motor carriers, ports, public transit and railroads. It consists of a central office and eight districts statewide.
- Minnesota Department of Transportation, Transportation Building, 395 John Ireland Boulevard, St. Paul, MN 55155, Telephone: (651) 296-3000
- Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA): An agency of the state government whose purpose is to protect Minnesota’s environment through monitoring environmental quality and enforcing environmental regulations. It consists of eight offices in six regions statewide.
- Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 520 Lafayette Road North, St. Paul, MN 55155-4194, Telephone: (651) 296-6300 or 800-657-3864 (in Minnesota only)
- Counties: A political division of local level government that is smaller than a state but generally larger than a city or town. In greater Minnesota, counties are often responsible for creation, implementation and enforcement of local water management plans. There are 87 counties in Minnesota.
- Association of Minnesota Counties, 125 Charles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55103-2108, Telephone: (651) 224-3344
- Metropolitan Council: A regional planning agency serving the Twin Cities seven-county metropolitan area. The Council establishes regional growth policies, plans for transportation, aviation, water resources and regional recreation open space. It also provides essential services, including transit and wastewater treatment, to the region. The council consists of 16 districts in the seven-county metro area.
- Metropolitan Council, Mears Park Center, Environmental Services, 230 East 5th Street, St. Paul, MN 55101, Telephone: (651) 602-1000
- [Municipalities and Townships]: Minnesota municipalities and townships have regulatory authority over activities within that municipality or township that are in addition to federal, state, county, and other local regulations and ordinances. The municipality or township in which the activities are to occur should be contacted for more information about specific regulations and permits required for any activity undertaken that may impact land use, stormwater, wetlands and other bodies of water, zoning, planning, grading or any land altering activity. An example includes Minnesota North Star Local Government
- League of Minnesota Cities
- 145 University Ave. West, St. Paul, MN 55103, Telephone: (651) 281-1200 or 1-800-925-1122
- Soil and Water Conservation Districts SWCD (SWCD): A political subdivision of the state whose boundaries generally coincide with county boundaries and whose purpose is to encourage private landowners to conserve soil and water resources through technical assistance, funding and educational services. Districts may delegate responsibility for creation, implementation, and enforcement of local water management plans to the SWCD.
- Minnesota Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts, 790 Cleveland Avenue South, Suite 201, St. Paul, MN 55116, Telephone: (651) 690-9028
- Watershed Districts (WD): Watershed districts are local units of government that work to solve and prevent water-related problems including flood control and water quality protection. The boundaries of the districts follow those of a natural watershed and are governed by a board of managers appointed by the boards of commissioners of the counties that have land in the district. Any activity that will impact land use, stormwater, wetlands and other bodies of water, zoning, planning, grading or any land altering activity should consult with the local watershed organization to determine the local regulations.
- Minnesota Association of Watershed Districts, 540 Diffley Road, St. Paul, MN 55123, Phone: (651) 452-8506
- Watershed Management Organizations (WMO): A watershed management organization is a watershed district wholly within the metropolitan area or a joint powers entity established wholly or partly in the metropolitan area by special law or agreement to perform some or all of the functions of a watershed district. Any activity that will impact land use, stormwater, wetlands and other bodies of water, zoning, planning, grading or any land altering activity should consult with the local watershed organization to determine the local regulations.
The following Federal and State legislation enables the creation of, and delegates authority for,
stormwater programs and regulations.
Federal enabling legislation
- Clean Water Act (CWA): The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Clean Water Act) established the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States. It gave USEPA the authority to implement pollution control programs and establish standards. The CWA made it unlawful for anyone to discharge any pollutant into navigable waters from a point source unless a permit was first obtained. It funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants program and recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution. Sections 303, 319, 401, 402, and 404 of the CWA specifically address USEPA’s and the state’s/tribe’s authority and responsibility in managing pollution of the nation’s waters:
- Section 303, Water Quality Standards and Implementation Plans: States are required every two years to publish an updated list of streams and lakes that are not meeting their designated uses because of excess pollutants. The list, known as the 303(d) list, is based on violations of water quality standards and is organized by river basin. For each pollutant that causes a water body to fail to meet state water quality standards, the CWA requires the MPCA to conduct a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study.
- Section 319, Nonpoint Source Management Program: States, territories, and delegated tribes are required to develop nonpoint source pollution management programs if they wish to receive funds under the Section 319 program.
- Section 401, Water Quality Certification: Anyone who wishes to obtain a federal permit for any activity, which may result in a discharge, must first obtain a state 401 water quality certification. The MPCA is the delegated authority to issue Section 401 water quality certifications in Minnesota. A Section 401 water quality certification may be granted if the applicant demonstrates that an activity will not result in a discharge that violates state water quality standards or results in adverse long- or short-term impacts on water quality. Such impacts can be direct or cumulative in nature.
- Section 402, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): USEPA, in coordination with States, the regulated community, and the public develops, implements, and conducts oversight of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program based on statutory requirements contained in the CWA and requirements contained in the NPDES regulations. Regulatory authority in the State of Minnesota is through the MPCA.
- Section 404, Discharge of Dredge or Fill Material into Waters of the U.S.: Section 404 regulates placement of dredged or fill material into “waters of the United States”. Wetlands are one component of “waters of the United States;” however, there are numerous other types including intermittent streams, small perennial streams, rivers, lakes, bays, estuaries, and portions of the oceans. The 404 permit program is administered jointly by USEPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The USACE handles the actual issuance of permits (both individual and general); it also determines whether a particular plot of land is a wetland or water of the United States. The USACE has primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with permit conditions, although USEPA also plays a role in compliance and enforcement.
- Coastal Zone Management Act of 1990, Section 6217: Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Management Act requires the 29 states and territories with approved Coastal Zone Management Programs to develop Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs. In its program, a state or territory describes how it will implement nonpoint source pollution controls, known as management measures, that conform with those described in Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. This program is administered jointly at the national level with USEPA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
- Dam Safety Act The Dam Safety and Security Act of 2002 addresses safety and security for dams through the coordination by the FEMA of federal programs and initiatives for dams and the transfer of federal best management practices in dam security to the states. The Act includes resources for the development and maintenance of a national dam safety information network and the development by the National Dam Safety Review Board of a strategic plan that establishes goals, priorities, and target dates to improve the safety and security of dams in the United States.
- National Flood Insurance Act of 1968: Federally subsidized flood insurance was made available to owners of flood-prone property through this act. Administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), participating communities are required to adopt certain minimum floodplain management standards, including restrictions on new development in designated floodways, a requirement that new structures in the 100-year flood zone be elevated to or above the 100-year flood level (known as base flood elevation), and a requirement that subdivisions are designed to minimize exposure to flood hazards.
- Safe Drinking Water Act: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was originally passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public health by regulating the nation’s public drinking water supply. The law was amended in 1986 and 1996 and requires many actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. USEPA sets national standards for drinking water to protect against health risks, taking into consideration available technology and costs. These National Primary Drinking Water Regulations set enforceable maximum contaminant levels for particular contaminants in drinking water or required ways to treat water to remove contaminants. Each standard also includes requirements for water systems to test for contaminants in the water to make sure standards are achieved. In addition to setting these standards, USEPA provides guidance, assistance, and public information about drinking water, collects drinking water data, and oversees state drinking water programs. The most direct oversight of water systems is conducted by state drinking water programs. States can apply to USEPA for primacy, the authority to implement SDWA within their jurisdictions, if they can show that they will adopt standards at least as stringent as USEPA’s and make sure water systems meet these standards. Minnesota has received primacy and the Minnesota Department of Health oversees implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act in the state. States ensure that water systems test for contaminants, review plans for water system improvements, conduct on-site inspections and sanitary surveys, provide training and technical assistance, and take action against water systems not meeting standards.
- Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899: Under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, the USACE regulates the construction of any structure in, over, or under any navigable water of the United States, the excavation/ dredging or deposition of material in these waters or any obstruction or alteration in a navigable water. A Section 10 permit is required from the USACE if the structure or work affects the course, location, condition, or capacity of the water body.
- Wild and Scenic Rivers Act: The National Wild & Scenic Rivers Act was enacted in 1968 to balance the building of dams on rivers for water supply, power, and other benefits, with protection of the free flowing character and outstanding values of selected rivers and streams for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. This designation prohibits the federal government from licensing or permitting hydroelectric dams or major diversions or assisting any water resource projects that may directly affect designated rivers. Public lands within an average of 1/4 mile corridor on both sides of the streams are managed to protect their outstanding scenic, recreational, historical/cultural, fish, wildlife, ecological, geological, and hydrological values.
State enabling legislation
At the State level, water law is organized into a series of Statutes and Rules. MN Statutes 103A through 103G constitute Water Law in Minnesota. These Statutes and their associated Rules are the enabling legislation related to stormwater at the State level. Links to 2004 statutes are provided.
- M.S. 84 – Department of Natural Resources: This chapter includes the powers and duties of the Department of Natural Resources commissioner and addresses issues related to public lands, parks, timber, waters, minerals, and wild animals of the state.
- M.S. 103A – Water Policy Information: Regulatory policy is defined within this chapter. Policy related to wetlands, hydropower, groundwater management, rainwater conservation, soil and water conservation, floodplain management, scenic river protection, marginal and erodable land, and water law policy are defined and addressed in this statute. Term definitions, jurisdiction, petition for intervention rules, authority, court referral, hearings, procedure, and statewide water information systems are defined and addressed.
- M.S. 103B – Water Planning and Project Implementation: Water planning and project implementation are addressed in this statute. It specifically creates and defines plans, programs, districts, commissions, organizations and boards to protect water resources. Statutes cover issues such as taxing authority, planning, levies, capital improvements, dispute resolution and project implementation. The following Acts, Programs and Laws applicable to stormwater are included within M.S. 103B:
- M.S. 103C – Soil and Water Conservation Districts: This chapter, which is known as Soil and Water Conservation District Law, addresses soil and water conservation policy. Statutes cover issues such as the formation of soil and water conservation districts, consolidation and division of districts, cooperation between districts and other public agencies, powers and duties of the Board of Water and Soil Resources, and project determination and assessments. The soil and water conservation policy of the state is to encourage land occupiers to conserve soil, water, and the natural resources they support through the implementation of practices that control or prevent pollution, ensure soil productivity, protect water quality, prevent impairment of dams and reservoirs, reduce flood damage, preserve wildlife, protect public lands and waters and preserve the tax base.
- M.S. 103D – Watershed Districts: Chapter 103D, which is known as Watershed Law, addresses the establishment and termination of Watershed Districts, consolidation and boundary changes of districts, watershed management plans, project procedure and implementation, general provisions and the funding of watershed districts and projects.
- M.S. 103E – Drainage: This chapter addresses general provisions, petitions for drainage projects, preliminary surveying and hearings, detailed surveying and viewing, drainage outlets, drainage construction, funding and payment of drainage system costs, and procedure to repair drainage systems.
- M.S. 103F – Protection of Water Resources: This chapter addresses the protection of water resources, specifically the Southern Minnesota Rivers Basin Area, shoreland development, the Wild Scenic Rivers Act, Mississippi Headwaters Planning and Management, the Minnesota River Basin Joint Powers Board, Project Riverbend, soil erosion, the water bank program, lake preservation and protection, and the Wetland Establishment and Restoration Program. The following Acts and Laws applicable to stormwater are included within M.S. 103F:
- Floodplain Management Law (103F.101 – 103F.155): This law addresses the reduction of flood damages through floodplain management activities. It stresses nonstructural measures such as floodplain zoning and flood proofing, flood warning practices, and other indemnification programs that reduce public liability and expense for flood damages. It provides for state coordination through the Department of Natural Resources and assistance to local government units in floodplain management planning and activities.
- Minnesota Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (103F.301 – 103F.345). This Act was passed to preserve and protect select rivers in the state that have outstanding scenic, recreational, natural, historical, scientific and similar values. It addresses which rivers could be eligible; designated three protected classes: wild, scenic, or recreational; and outlined the procedure that should be followed in the development of a management plan.
- Clean Water Partnership Law (103F.701 – 103F.761): This law addresses the protection and improvement of surface and ground water in the state through financial and technical assistance to local units of government. The purpose of this law is to control water pollution associated with land use and land management activities and to provide a legal basis for state implementation of federal laws controlling nonpoint source water pollution.”
- M.S. 103G – Waters of the State: The waters of the state are addressed in this chapter. The statute includes the commissioner’s authority, public water designation and use, wetlands, work affecting public waters, water diversion and appropriation, permit procedure, water level establishment and control, Big Stone Lake, Mississippi Headwater Lakes, dam construction and maintenance, flowage easements, water aeration and deicing, harvest and control of aquatic plants, sunken log recovery, and streams.
- M.S. 103H – Groundwater Protection: This chapter addresses ground water issues including sensitive area protection, development of best management practices, quality monitoring requirements, health risk limits, and pollution management.
- M.S. 103I – Wells, Borings, and Underground Uses This chapter addresses well construction, repair, and sealing; regulations related to wells and borings; and licensing requirements.
- M.S. 115 – Water Pollution Control; Sanitary Districts: Chapter 115 addresses issues concerning water pollution control, sanitary districts, municipal water pollution control, individual and alternative discharging sewage treatment systems, regional sanitary sewer districts, water supply systems, and wastewater treatment facilities. The following Acts and Laws applicable to stormwater are included within M.S. 115:
- State Water Pollution Control Act (M.S. 115.01 – 115.09): This Act specifically addresses stormwater issues and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The addresses MPCA authority to perform necessary acts including the establishment and application of standards, procedures, rules, orders, variances, stipulation agreements, schedules of compliance, and permit conditions, consistent with the provisions of the federal CWA, including the NPDES. It outlines public notice for NPDES permit applications, provisions for stormwater permits, general permits, compliance with non-degradation and mitigation requirements of agency water quality rules, and regulation of stormwater discharges.
- Sanitary Sewer District Law (M.S. 115.16 – 115.67) Provision for the establishment of sanitary sewer districts as a municipal corporation and subdivision of the state responsible for acquiring, constructing, improving, extending, operating, and maintaining facilities for the collection, treatment, and disposal of sewage and industrial and other wastes received from the sewer systems of all municipalities within its corporate limits.
- M.S. 116 – Pollution Control Agency: This chapter addresses the creation and powers of the MPCA, the Water Pollution Control Program, nutrients in cleaning agents and water conditioners, storage tanks, and waste facility training and certification. NPDES permitting requirements for feedlots are specifically addressed in this chapter.
- M.S. 116A – Public Water and Sewer Systems: This chapter outlines the purpose of the establishment of public water and sewer systems and addresses the power of county boards to construct and maintain such facilities.
- M.S. 144 – Department of Health: This chapter also known as the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1977, describes the purpose and authority of the Department of Health. It addresses safe drinking water, approval of design, construction, and alteration of all public water supplies, testing, inspection, emergency plans and record keeping of facilities.
- M.S. 473 – Metropolitan Government: This chapter includes the creation of the Metropolitan Council and addresses regional issues including transportation, recreational open space, solid waste disposal, aviation, water supply, comprehensive planning, and housing and redevelopment.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 4410: Environmental Quality Board environmental review rules and procedures.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 4720: Minnesota Department of Health public water supplies rules including wellhead protection plan content and procedural requirements.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 4725: Minnesota Department of Health wells and borings rules.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 6105: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources wild, scenic, and recreational rivers rule. Provide minimum statewide requirements for the selection, classification, management, and control of wild, scenic, and recreational rivers and their land use districts.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 6115: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources public water resources rules.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 6120: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources shoreland and floodplain management rules including standards and criteria to guide local governments in the adoption and implementation of shoreland and floodplain management controls.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 6135: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources utility crossing rules. Concerning utility crossings over public lands and waters, sets fees, standards, and criteria for minimizing the environmental impact of the crossings.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 7001: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency permits and certifications including the NPDES permits application procedures, issuance and conditions of approvals and the Section 401 certifications.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 7020: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency animal feedlot permit requirements and rules addressing storage, transportation, disposal, and utilization of animal manure and process wastewaters.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 7050: Water quality standards and related provisions are found in several Minnesota rules, but the primary rule for state-wide water quality standards is Chapter 7050. Included in this rule are:
- A classification system of beneficial uses for both surface and ground waters
- Numeric and narrative water quality standards
- Nondegradation provisions
- Provisions for the protection of wetlands
- Treatment requirements and effluent limits for wastewater discharges
- Other provisions related to the protection of Minnesota’s water resources from pollution.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 7052: This rule outlines water quality standards, nondegradation provisions, and methods for setting water quality-based effluent limits for point sources applicable only to waters in the Lake Superior basin. This rule, called the Great Lakes Initiative (GLI), was mandated by an amendment to the Clean Water Act in 1987. All eight Great Lakes states have adopted the GLI. The GLI rules provide a common approach across state lines for the control and minimization of the discharge of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants into the Great Lakes system.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 7090: The MPCA’s stormwater rules for the construction, industrial, and municipal stormwater permitting programs. It describes who, what, and when joint NPDES/SDS stormwater permits are required. The rules address the requirements of both the Phase I and Phase II federal stormwater regulations by integrating these regulations into one state Stormwater Regulatory Program under a new chapter of Minnesota Rules, Chapter 7090, adopted in 2005. Minnesota Rules Chapter 7090 includes the following:
- NPDES permit requirements for regulated MS4s, construction and industrial activities
- MS4 designation process and criteria
- Notification of construction stormwater general permit coverage
- Industrial activity no-exposure exclusion
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 8410: Board of Water and Soil Resources local water management rules including required content for watershed management plans, joint powers agreements establishing a watershed management organization, and local comprehensive plans.
- Minnesota Rules Chapter 8420: Board of Water and Soil Resources wetland conservation rules implementing the Wetland Conservation Act and regulating impacts to wetlands caused by draining, excavating, or filling. The rules include exemption standards, sequencing requirements, replacement requirements and local government procedures.
The following table contains a list of links to sources for model ordinances on a variety of stormwater management issues, including: general stormwater management, erosion and sediment control, growth management, floodplain management, shoreland management, neighborhood design, effective building, elicit discharge detection and elimination, ground water protection, operations and maintenance and more. These model ordinances may be used as a starting point for communities to work from in developing and adapting ordinances to local conditions and jurisdictions.
Model ordinance sources
Link to this table