Illicit discharges are those wastes and wastewaters from non-stormwater sources which MS4s cannot legally discharge down storm drains. Sources include:
The result of illicit discharges entering the storm drain is untreated discharges to receiving water, contributing high levels of pollutants including heavy metals, toxics, oil and grease, solvents, nutrients, viruses, and bacteria. Pollutant levels from these illicit discharges have been shown in EPA studies (see Additional Resources) to be high enough to significantly degrade receiving water quality and threaten aquatic, wildlife and human health. This fact sheet provides guidance on identification of potential illicit stormwater discharges and techniques to reduce the risk of illicit discharges.
Reduction of illicit discharges results in minimization of the discharge of pollutants down storm drains or water conduits and, ultimately to downstream lakes, streams and wetlands. Reducing discharge of pollutants improves water clarity, coloration and odor, as well as fish and wildlife habitat.
Programs designed to identify illicit discharges and reduce the risk of such discharges are dependant upon several factors including the MS4’s available resources, size of staff, and degree and character of its illicit discharges. Ultimately, effective source control is dependent upon applying a mixture of education, incentives and regulation.
The Center for Watershed Protection identifies some strategies for education and incentives: passive education, active training, provision of direct MS4 services, subsidies and discounts, home/business-owner recognition programs, stewardship group formation. Regulations might include: adoption of a local ordinance, notifications/signs /hotlines, restrictions or bans, enforcement, utility pricing. An effective program applies some combination of the above strategies, many of which are discussed below. For greater detail, see the Additional Resources section.
Awareness campaigns inform public employees, businesses, property owners, and elected officials of the ways to detect and eliminate illicit discharges and the hazards associated with illegal discharges and improper disposal of waste. Illicit discharge education actions may include programs to promote, publicize and facilitate public reporting of illicit connections or discharges, distribution of outreach materials and storm drain stenciling. Suggested educational methods include:
Brochures Develop informative brochures, guidance for specific audiences (i.e. carpet cleaning businesses that might dump their wastewater into a convenient manhole) and school curricula. Tips might include:
Public watch campaign Design a program to publicize and facilitate public reporting of illicit discharges. Establish a 24-hour call-in line for pollution complaints.
Volunteer storm drain inspections and stenciling Coordinate volunteers for locating and visually inspecting outfalls or to stencil storm drains (see the Storm Drain Stenciling fact sheet).