Residential Waste Collection & Clean-up Programs

Developing municipal programs for non-hazardous household waste and yard waste collection and clean-up

Illegal dumping of non-hazardous household waste and improper dumping of yard waste in streets, storm drains, wetlands, lakes, and other water bodies pollutes surface waters. Non-hazardous household waste includes items such as tires, furniture, common household appliances and other bulk items. Yard waste includes any organic debris such as grass clippings, leaves, and tree branches.

Although yard waste is composed of natural materials that will eventually decompose, the debris releases nutrients and uses up oxygen that is necessary for a healthy aquatic ecosystem. Non-hazardous household materials should be recycled or disposed of at a proper facility and yard waste is best minimized and composted. This fact sheet provides guidance on implementing non-hazardous residential waste and yard waste clean-up and collection programs in order to increase public awareness about the environmental impacts of these wastes to encourage proper disposal.

Benefits / Pollution Reduction

Waste collection and clean-up programs can positively change the actions of residents by decreasing the dumping of household materials and yard waste into local surface waters. Yard waste such as grass clippings and leaves, when carried through storm drains or dumped directly into a waterbody, contribute excess amounts of phosphorus to the water, resulting in an increase in the likelihood and severity of noxious algae blooms. Reductions in these pollutants entering surface waters will contribute to improved water clarity, coloration, odor, and fish and wildlife habitat, leading to a more inviting lake for community recreation and enjoyment.

Program Development & Implementation

Encouraging citizens to responsibly dispose of non-hazardous residential waste and yard waste can be accomplished through:

  • Ordinances prohibiting harmful disposal
  • Education on why dumping is harmful to water resources
  • Efforts to connect citizens with local resources to form a sense of ownership and value
  • Organized clean-up and waste collection programs

MS4s can combine education with clean-up and waste collection programs for optimal results. For additional program development information regarding illicit discharges, see the Potential Discharge Identification and Risk Reduction fact sheet and for information on preventing disposal of waste in storm drains see the Storm Drain Stenciling fact sheet.

Waste Collection Programs=

Offering designated waste drop off locations or curbside yard and bulk non-hazardous household waste collection provides residents with an environmentally friendly alternative to illegal and illicit dumping of waste. There are a variety of options to look into before choosing the best option for your community. These programs can be set-up and implemented by a municipality which will result in a direct cost up front for additional staffing. Coordination of these programs can be contracted out to a private collection service. Additionally, these programs can be offered free of charge, through pay-as-you-throw fees, or by implementing a seasonal or year-round flat fee added to utility billings.

Curbside yard waste collection Many waste haulers in the Metro Area will pick up yard waste for an extra fee. The city of Columbus, Ohio has contracted with a private hauling service to provide a subscription based yard waste collection service to its residents. The resident is responsible for paying a fee for the six month service. Waste is accepted in biodegradable paper bags, rigid reusable containers labeled with “YARD WASTE” or bundles of twigs tied with twine. Residents can place up to 15 bags, bundles or containers of yard waste curbside for a weekly pick-up. If the limit of 15 is exceeded, additional waste can be collected for a fee. Some communities identify a size limit for yard waste that can be picked up curbside. Waste that exceeds the size limit, must be dropped off at a waste facility by the homeowner.

Yard waste drop off Designated drop off facilities can be established for yard waste collection. Ramsey County, MN has seven yard waste drop off sites. The sites are open for residents from April through November to drop off yard waste free of charge. Taxes cover the costs of operation and the sites are only available to residents. The County composts a portion of the material and offers it back to residents free of charge. The majority of compost is trucked by vendors to high- capacity compost sites or to farming operations for soil amendments. The County website identifies what wastes are accepted and available at each site.

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