Stormwater runoff from residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural land uses contains pollutants that can contaminate water bodies. Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces also can increase runoff velocities and contribute to streambank erosion. Swales and buffer strips are a type of stormwater treatment composed of vegetation and a porous subsoil medium. Buffer strips are vegetated areas adjacent to a waterway that prohibit stormwater runoff from flowing directly into a water body.
The vegetation catches pollutants carried by stormwater, decreases the rate of flow and volume of runoff, and stabilizes the soil on the shoreline or bank, lessening erosion caused by runoff. A swale is a long, vegetated depression often used as a water conveyance system which is also designed to infiltrate water and remove sediment and pollutants from runoff. A swale, therefore, assists in recharging ground water and managing stormwater runoff quantity and quality. This fact sheet provides guidance on the design, implementation and maintenance of vegetated swales and buffer strips and on programs to educate the public and decision makers about installing them.
Properly designed swales and buffers protect and separate a stream, lake or wetland from future disturbance or encroachment and sustain the integrity of stream ecosystem habitats. Maintaining a buffer or swale upstream of surface waters reduces pollutant impacts from sediment, phosphorus, nitrogen and high temperature waters. Additional benefits include ground water recharge, channel protection, erosion control, aquatic and terrestrial riparian habitat, flood control and recreational and educational opportunities.
Swales and buffer, when constructed properly, can remove a series of pollutants from stormwater runoff. Water quality removal rates for are variable and depend on a number of factors including slope, width, and vegetation. The Minnesota Stormwater Manual contains relevant data on pollutant removal efficiencies.
===Program Development & Implementation===\ Programs designed to facilitate the installation of swales and buffers for water quality protection take into account both the mechanism of implementation and the ideal design characteristics for maximum effectiveness. For additional information on developing a buffer ordinance see the Establishing a Buffer Ordinance fact sheet. The following elements can be implemented in a vegetated swale and buffer initiative.
Awareness campaigns inform businesses, developers, and property owners of the benefits of vegetated swales and buffers. Efforts can contribute to encouraging individuals and organizations to implement buffers on a voluntary basis, educating individuals on proper installation and maintenance. Suggested educational methods include:
Brochures Develop informative brochures, and guidance for specific audiences such as businesses, contractors, developers, homeowners associations and garden clubs.
Signage at municipal installations Locate signage at parks, government buildings, and parking lots identifying swales and buffers and explaining their functions and benefits.
Workshops and seminars Workshops and seminars can be used to provide needed technical assistance to homeowners, property owners and citizens for establishing a swale or buffer on their property.
Vegetated swales are linear, channel-like surface depressions that can be utilized as conveyance to direct stormwater away from or around a structure, for treatment to remove pollutants from stormwater, to promote infiltration of runoff into the ground and as volume control for stormwater runoff. Vegetated swales can also be landscaped to provide an aesthetic appeal and provide natural habitat within an urban setting.