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{{alert|This page is an edit and testing page use by the wiki authors.  It is not a content page for the Manual. Information on this page may not be accurate and should not be used as guidance in managing stormwater.|alert-danger}}
 
{{alert|This page is an edit and testing page use by the wiki authors.  It is not a content page for the Manual. Information on this page may not be accurate and should not be used as guidance in managing stormwater.|alert-danger}}
  
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<font size=5>Reporting phosphorus and TSS reduction credits from street sweeping</font size>
  
==Green Infrastructure==
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[[File:Selbig graph.png|400px|thumb|alt=graph of P removal with street sweeping|<font size=3>Research conducted by Bill Selbig (USGS) shows that streets, when cleaned of leaf litter prior to a storm, can significantly decrease phosphorus loads in stormwater runoff ([https://www.usgs.gov/centers/umid-water/science/using-leaf-collection-and-street-cleaning-reduce-nutrients-urban?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects Link to study])</font size>]]
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At this time, the MPCA has not developed guidance for how to credit reductions in phosphorus or total suspended solid loading associated with enhanced street sweeping. We anticipate developing this guidance in 2022. In developing  this guidance, consider the following.
 +
*Baseline: Credits toward permit compliance, such as compliance with <span title="The amount of a pollutant from both point and nonpoint sources that a waterbody can receive and still meet water quality standards"> [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Total_Maximum_Daily_Loads_(TMDLs) '''total maximum daily loads''']</span>, can only be applied toward enhanced street sweeping. This is sweeping that results in pollutant reductions above pollutant reductions associated with sweeping that occurred at the <span title="The year from which stormwater practices can be credited toward meeting a total maximum daily load (TMDL) wasteload allocation (WLA)"> '''[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Baseline_year baseline year]'''</span>.
 +
*Accounting for seasonality: The image on the right illustrates the seasonal nature of phosphorus loading in areas where leaves and other organic sources are a source of phosphorus. Most models and other methods of estimating annual loads do not consider this seasonality and most likely significantly underestimates annual phosphorus loading. Accurate representation of impacts from enhanced street sweeping will require adjusting initial (baseline) calculations of loading. The MPCA is discussing appropriate methods for accounting for this seasonality.
 +
*Downstream BMPs: Enhanced street sweeping potentially impacts loading to and performance of downstream BMPs. The MPCA is discussing if adjustments in downstream loading and/or adjustments in BMP performance are needed to accurately determine changes in phosphorus loading in areas where enhanced street sweeping is implemented.
  
The concept of green infrastructure is about creating infrastructure that mimics, restores or maintains natural hydrology.  Green infrastructure includes a wide array of practices at multiple scales that manage wet weather and that maintains or restores natural hydrology by infiltrating, evapotranspiring, or harvesting and using stormwater. On a regional scale, green infrastructure is the preservation or restoration of natural landscape features, such as forests, floodplains and wetlands, coupled with policies such as infill and redevelopment that reduce overall imperviousness in a watershed. On the local scale, green infrastructure consists of site and neighborhood-specific practices, such as bioretention, trees, green roofs, permeable pavements and cisterns
 
  
In other words, the idea is to improve and maintain water quality by using less concrete / pipes and more native landscaping to achieve good water quality.  There is a certain natural aesthetic tied into the concept of green infrastructure.  A turf covered depression may function close to the same as a rain garden.  But the natural aesthetic of the garden with native plants makes the rain garden infrastructure more closely mimic the natural  (pre-development) hydrology.  As will be detailed in the articles below beyond the benefits of infiltrating stormwater runoff in a rain garden there are other benefits to a rain garden being a garden. 
 
  
===Background===
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<!--
  
Water is continually on the move on, above and below the surface of the earth.  This movement is called the water cycle (AKA: hydrological cycle or H2O cycle).  The water moves by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different phases: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor.  To talk about the water cycle is to talk about:
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[[Ecosystem Function of vegetation in stormwater management]]
*The state of the water - liquid, solid (frozen) or gas (vapor)
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==Habitat==
*where it is relative to the surface of the earth  - below (ground water), on (surface water), above (humidity)
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===Pollinators & Insects===
*location (city , state, country, named ocean, etc.)
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===Birds===
 +
===Mammals===
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===Reptiles===
 +
===Amphibians===
 +
===Humans===
 +
===Aquatic Species===
 +
==Nutrient Cycling==
 +
===Primary Producers===
 +
===Terrestrial Food Chain===
 +
===Aquatic Food Chain===
 +
===Carbon Sequestration===
 +
===Oxygen & air quality benefits===
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==Soil Regeneration==
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-->
  
The total amount of water on earth is considered to have been more or less constant for hundreds of millions of years. What is not constant is the amount of water that is liquid, gas or solid that is below, on or above the surface at a particular location.   Again in plain language less ice means more liquid water (higher sea levels) and / or more humidity. Pumping out groundwater means more surface water and / or more humidity.  There are many scenarios which would illustrate how the balance in the water cycle changes yet the total amount of water on earth does not change. 
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<!--
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<p dir="ltr" style="background-color:#d5fdf4; font-size:30px; text-align: center;" role="presentation" class="zfr3Q CDt4Ke">
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<a href="https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Street_Sweeping_Phosphorus_Credit_Calculator_How-to-Guide">
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Donate
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</a>
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</p>
  
Water is requirement for all known living organisms.  The trick is to the water supporting life is the water has to be of a certain range quality.    Fish needs some oxygen to be dissolved in the water to survive.  Thousands of species of fish live in the saline oceans but humans cannot survive drinking ocean water because of the saline.  Water quality is about  the concentration of what is suspended or dissolved in the water.  When we talk about water quality it is relative to ability to  support various uses of the water.  Water is an excellent solvent.  The list of things that will dissolve in water is very long.  Even many things that don't dissolve in water will suspend in water. 
 
  
In the past several centuries, man has changed the natural hydrology by adding infrastructure.  For example:
 
*impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots, buildings
 
*drainage ditches
 
*Drain tiles
 
*cleared huge swaths of land
 
**recreation
 
**logging
 
**agriculture
 
*temperature (climate change)
 
*and the like
 
  
The result of these activities has adversely affected the water quality and changed the hydrologic balance.  The goal of Green infrastructure is to move back to a more natural hydrology while supporting the needs of our civilized world. 
 
  
This portal has links to numerous articles relating to various aspects of using natural hydraulic methods to preserve and restore good water quality.  In other words, this portal is about providing information about the use of green infrastructure.
 
  
Conceptually Green Infrastructure is about using natural hydrology and topography to benefit water quality. The articles below should help provide a base of high level information which is in turn linked to more detailed technical information to assist in creating "Green Infrastructure".
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<p dir="ltr" style="background-color:#d5fdf4; font-size:30px; text-align: center;" role="presentation" class="zfr3Q CDt4Ke">
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<a href="https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Street_Sweeping_Phosphorus_Credit_Calculator_How-to-Guide">
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<span role="link" class="I4aHG">
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<span style="text-decoration:underline;" class="aw5Odc" data-ri="0">Donate
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</span>
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</span>
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</a>
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</p>
  
===Introduction to pre-development hydrology===
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
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'''BMPs'''
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
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:'''Bioretention'''
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
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*[[Bioretention terminology]] (including types of bioretention)
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*[[Overview for bioretention]]
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*[[Design criteria for bioretention]]
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*[[Construction specifications for bioretention]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance of bioretention and other stormwater infiltration practices]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance of bioretention and other stormwater infiltration practices - supplemental information]]
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**[[Operation and maintenance of bioretention]] - we recommend using the above two pages
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*[[Assessing the performance of bioretention]]
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*[[Cost-benefit considerations for bioretention]]
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*[[Calculating credits for bioretention]]
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of bioretention]]
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*[[Soil amendments to enhance phosphorus sorption]]
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*[[Summary of permit requirements for bioretention]]
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Category:Bioretention_photo Bioretention photos]
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Category:Bioretention_schematic Bioretention schematics]
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Category:Bioretention_table Bioretention tables]
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*[[Supporting material for bioretention]]
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*[[External resources for bioretention]]
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*[[References for bioretention]]
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using bioretention with no underdrain BMPs in the MIDS calculator]]
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using bioretention with an underdrain BMPs in the MIDS calculator]]</div>
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</div>
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
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:'''Tree trenches'''
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
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*[[Design guidelines for tree quality and planting - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Design guidelines for soil characteristics - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Construction guidelines for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance (O&M) of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes - supplemental information]]
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**[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes]] - we recommend using one of the above two pages
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*[[Assessing the performance of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Calculating credits for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Case studies for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Soil amendments to enhance phosphorus sorption]]
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Summary of permit requirements for infiltration]]
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*[[Tree trench/box photo gallery]]
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*[[Fact sheet for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees with an underdrain as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]
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</div>
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
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:'''Permeable pavement'''
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
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*[[Overview for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Types of permeable pavement]]
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*[[Design criteria for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Construction specifications for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Assessing the performance of permeable pavement]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance of permeable pavement]]
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*[[Calculating credits for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Case studies for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of permeable pavement]]
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*[[Summary of permit requirements for infiltration]]
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*[[Permeable pavement photo gallery]]
 +
*[[Additional considerations for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Links for permeable pavement]]
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*[[References for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using permeable pavement BMPs in the MIDS calculator]]
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*[[Fact sheets for permeable pavement]]
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*[[Recent news and information for permeable pavement]]
 +
</div>
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
 +
:'''Green roof'''
 +
<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
 +
*[[Overview for green roofs]]
 +
*[[Types of green roofs]]
 +
*[[Design criteria for green roofs]]
 +
*[[Construction specifications for green roofs]]
 +
*[[Assessing the performance of green roofs]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance (O&M) of green roofs]]
 +
*[[Operation and maintenance of green roofs - supplemental information]]
 +
**[[Operation and maintenance of green roofs]] - we recommend using the above two pages
 +
*[[Calculating credits for green roofs]]
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*[[Cost-benefit considerations for green roofs]]
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*[[Plant lists for green roofs]]
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*[[Case studies for green roofs]]
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*[[Links for green roofs]]
 +
*[[References for green roofs]]
 +
*[[Supporting material for green roofs]]
 +
*[[Green roofs terminology and glossary]]
 +
*[[Green roof fact sheet]]
 +
*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using green roofs as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]</div>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
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-->
  
===Introduction to Water quality===
 
  
  
===Resources===
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[[Category:test page]]
 
 
[http://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-infrastructure-back-basics Green infrastructure: Back to basics]
 
 
 
 
 
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_infrastructure Green infrastructure - wikipedia]
 
 
 
[https://www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure/what-green-infrastructure What is Green Infrastructure? - EPA]
 
 
 
[http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/GI/Pages/index.aspx Green Infrastructure - Using natural systems to meet environmental challenges in urban, rural and coastal settings]
 
 
 
[http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/GI/Documents/Green%20Infrastructure/Green_Infra_Primer2016_FINAL%20web%20version.pdf Green Infrastructure Primer]
 
 
 
[https://www.pca.state.mn.us/water/stormwater-management-low-impact-development-and-green-infrastructure Stormwater management: Low-impact development and green infrastructure]
 
 
 
 
 
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue-Green_Cities Blue-Green Cities]
 
 
 
[http://www.bluegreencities.ac.uk/bluegreencities/index.aspx BlueGreenCities]
 
 
 
[http://bgd.org.uk/ Blue Green Dream]
 
 
 
[http://www.susdrain.org/#_ Sustainable Drain]
 
 
 
[http://www.stormwater.asn.au/ Stormwater Australia]
 
 
 
[http://savetherain.us/ Save the rain]
 
 
 
[https://www.asla.org/ContentDetail.aspx?id=24076 Professional Practice - Green Infrastructure - American Society of Landscape Architects]
 
 
 
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_drainage_system Sustainable drainage system]
 
 
 
[http://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/34598 Green Infrastructure - City of Portland Oregon]
 
 
 
 
 
[https://www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure/green-infrastructure-and-climate-change-collaborating-improve-community Green Infrastructure and Climate Change: Collaborating to Improve Community Resiliency]
 
 
 
[http://www.conservationfund.org/what-we-do/strategic-conservation-planning Green Infrastructure, The Conservation Fund]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
====Anne G. thoughts for Green Infrastructure Web Page in Stormwater Manual====
 
 
 
 
 
Include:
 
 
 
 
 
''''Definition of GI:''''  this is what’s in the manual now:
 
 
 
green infrastructure -means a wide array of practices at multiple scales that manage wet weather and that maintains or restores natural hydrology by infiltrating, evapotranspiring, or harvesting and using stormwater. On a regional scale, green infrastructure is the preservation or restoration of natural landscape features, such as forests, floodplains and wetlands, coupled with policies such as infill and redevelopment that reduce overall imperviousness in a watershed. On the local scale, green infrastructure consists of site and and neighborhood-specific practices, such as bioretention, trees, green roofs, permeable pavements and cisterns
 
 
 
Notice all the green call-out boxes for green infrastructure.
 
 
 
''''GI BMP’s:  ''''
 
*Permeable pavement (link to page)
 
*Green roofs (link to page)
 
*Harvest and Use (link to page)
 
*Trees (link to page)
 
*Bioretention (link to page)
 
*Infiltration
 
 
 
 
 
''''GI and Climate Change/Adaptation/Resiliency''''
 
*EPA: State Water Agency Practices for Climate Change Adaptation:  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-10/documents/mn_stormwater_manual_final.pdf
 
*EPA:  Flood Loss Avoidance Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-05/documents/flood-avoidance-green-infrastructure-12-14-2015.pdf
 
*EPA Green Infrastructure for Climate Resiliency Infographic:  https://www.epa.gov/file/green-infrastructure-climate-resiliency-infographic
 
*Link to MPCA’s climate adaption strategy: https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/p-gen4-10.pdf
 
*Link to MN Interagency Climate Adaption Team report: https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/p-gen4-07.pdf: 
 
 
 
The MPCA’s Stormwater Program has been addressing the issues related to climate change adaptation  since 2005 with the first issuance of the Minnesota Stormwater Manual. It advanced the concept of treating water on site, using low impact design, and volume control best management practices (BMPs). Since then, stormwater permits have advanced these BMPs, and MPCA has worked to set goals and quantify credits for using these BMPs through the Minimal Impact Design Standards (MIDS) Project. Consistent with MIDS are BMPs that can increase infiltration and reduce runoff (including green infrastructure like rain gardens, urban forestry/trees, pervious pavement, swales, etc.) Local units of government have traditionally worked to get water off the landscape as quickly as possible. In the last couple of decades, the MPCA has started addressing pollutant and rate control. We are now beginning to address volume control. Volume control, and working to mimic natural hydrology, helps to result in less dramatic runoff events, which reduces stream erosion and scouring. Impervious surfaces are increasing faster than population growth. This increase in impervious surface coupled with larger storm events will have a significant impact on receiving waters. Stormwater capture and reuse is an opportunity to reduce runoff and reap benefits from heavier rainfalls while reducing demands on the potable water supply.
 
 
 
NOAA Atlas 14 updates are being utilized to more accurately reflect precipitation intensities and durations. NOAA Atlas 14 incorporates 50 additional years of data into the estimate of precipitation 27 intensity and durations, and could account for changes that may be related to climate change. These estimates, used as an engineering standard, are vital to ensure proper design of culverts, storm sewers, and water quality devices.
 
 
 
In August 2013, the reissued Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) General Permit became effective, which regulates stormwater discharge from counties, cities, townships and other publicly owned entities in urbanized areas. The goal of the MS4 program is to prevent or reduce the discharge of pollutants to stormwater, and ultimately, surface waters. This permit’s provisions will help to address problems of erosion and water pollution associated with heavy precipitation events.
 
 
 
Portfolio of green infrastructure in Minnesota (by region)
 
 
 
''''GI and health benefits:''''
 
 
 
''''GI and sustainable communities:''''  EPA:  Enhancing Communities with Green Infrastructure: https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/enhancing-sustainable-communities-green-infrastructure
 
 
 
''''Green Streets and Living Streets.'''  City of North St. Paul:  http://www.ci.north-saint-paul.mn.us/vertical/sites/%7B5F63881B-2F96-4032-818C-7F4AD3529485%7D/uploads/%7BAF05CD7B-64EC-4FA8-A5BF-55F91637C22A%7D.PDF  and City of Maplewood:  http://maplewoodmn.gov/1014/Living-Streets
 
 
 
 
 
''''For municipalities:  ''''
 
 
 
Integrating GI : EPA:  GI Opportunities that Arise During Municipal Operations: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/green_infrastructure_roadshow.pdf
 
Meet permit requirements with GI:
 
 
 
 
 
''''GI Costs/Benefits''''
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'''''GI and brownfield development: '''''
 
 
 
 
 
''''Link to other reports:''''
 
EQB
 

Latest revision as of 20:36, 13 April 2022

Warning: This page is an edit and testing page use by the wiki authors. It is not a content page for the Manual. Information on this page may not be accurate and should not be used as guidance in managing stormwater.

Reporting phosphorus and TSS reduction credits from street sweeping

graph of P removal with street sweeping
Research conducted by Bill Selbig (USGS) shows that streets, when cleaned of leaf litter prior to a storm, can significantly decrease phosphorus loads in stormwater runoff (Link to study)

At this time, the MPCA has not developed guidance for how to credit reductions in phosphorus or total suspended solid loading associated with enhanced street sweeping. We anticipate developing this guidance in 2022. In developing this guidance, consider the following.

  • Baseline: Credits toward permit compliance, such as compliance with total maximum daily loads, can only be applied toward enhanced street sweeping. This is sweeping that results in pollutant reductions above pollutant reductions associated with sweeping that occurred at the baseline year.
  • Accounting for seasonality: The image on the right illustrates the seasonal nature of phosphorus loading in areas where leaves and other organic sources are a source of phosphorus. Most models and other methods of estimating annual loads do not consider this seasonality and most likely significantly underestimates annual phosphorus loading. Accurate representation of impacts from enhanced street sweeping will require adjusting initial (baseline) calculations of loading. The MPCA is discussing appropriate methods for accounting for this seasonality.
  • Downstream BMPs: Enhanced street sweeping potentially impacts loading to and performance of downstream BMPs. The MPCA is discussing if adjustments in downstream loading and/or adjustments in BMP performance are needed to accurately determine changes in phosphorus loading in areas where enhanced street sweeping is implemented.

This page was last edited on 13 April 2022, at 20:36.

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