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This sector draws water from groundwater or surface water sources and tests and treats it before distributing it to residents. Municipalities that soften the water before it is distributed to households or municipalities that are considering this, care should be taken to minimize salt use and salt waste. Assess the need for soft water in the area and look for non-salt approaches such as lime softening. Consider the mass balance of how much salt is used by individual water softeners versus centralized water softening. However, users may be unaware the water from the municipality is softened or may be accustomed to having a residential softener leading to double softening. Municipalities can also evaluate how high saline water is disposed of in the cleaning and flushing process.