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{{alert|The anticipated construction period for this page is through April, 2014|alert-under-construction}}
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[[File:mids logo.jpg|300px|right|alt=image of Minimal Impact Design Standards logo]]
  
 
{{alert|Trees can be an important tool for retention and detention of stormwater runoff. Trees provide additional benefits, including cleaner air, reduction of heat island effects, carbon sequestration, reduced noise pollution, reduced pavement maintenance needs, and cooler cars in shaded parking lots.|alert-success}}
 
{{alert|Trees can be an important tool for retention and detention of stormwater runoff. Trees provide additional benefits, including cleaner air, reduction of heat island effects, carbon sequestration, reduced noise pollution, reduced pavement maintenance needs, and cooler cars in shaded parking lots.|alert-success}}
  
{{alert|Trees are a [[Bioretention|bioretention]] practice|alert-info}}
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{{alert|Tree trenches and tree boxes are [[Bioretention|bioretention]] practices.  However, because of differences in design, construction and maintenance, we have created a separate section for trees.|alert-info}}
  
[[File:mids logo.jpg|300px|right|alt=image of Minimal Impact Design Standards logo]]
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[[file:Check it out.png|200px|left|thumb|alt=image|<font size=3>
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*The tree interception credit has been updated. [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=File:Tree_Performance_Memo.docx See the technical memo]
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*[http://www.deeproot.com/blog/?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=DeepRoot%20Newsletter%20July%202019&utm_content=DeepRoot%20Newsletter%20July%202019%20CID_930020a63aca598a8c6d4fdb513662ab&utm_source=Email This blog site] has numerous blogs that may be of interest.</font size>]]
  
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[[File:Tree_trenches.gif|right|300px|alt=image of tree trenches]]
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<!--
 
[[File:Marquette avenue 5.jpg|thumb|300px|alt=photo of trees on marquette Avenue|<font size=3>Tree BMPs on Marquette Avenue, Minneapolis Minnesota. Photo courtesy of the Kestrel Design Group, Inc.</font size>]]
 
[[File:Marquette avenue 5.jpg|thumb|300px|alt=photo of trees on marquette Avenue|<font size=3>Tree BMPs on Marquette Avenue, Minneapolis Minnesota. Photo courtesy of the Kestrel Design Group, Inc.</font size>]]
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-->
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Use of trees to manage stormwater runoff encompasses several practices. Tree trenches and tree boxes (collectively called tree BMPs), the most commonly implemented tree BMPs, can be incorporated anywhere in the stormwater treatment train but are most often located in upland areas of the treatment train.
  
Use of trees to manage stormwater runoff encompasses several practices. Tree trenches and tree boxes (collectively called tree BMP(s)), the most commonly implemented tree BMPs, can be incorporated anywhere in the stormwater treatment train but are most often located in upland areas of the treatment train.
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Tree BMPs are one component of urban forestry. Urban forestry is a broad term that applies to all publicly and privately owned trees within an urban area, including individual trees along streets and in backyards, as well as stands of remnant forest (Nowak et al. 2001). This page includes three sections covering [http://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/Trees#General_information_on_trees general information about trees], [http://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/Trees#Tree_trenches_and_tree_boxes tree trenches and tree boxes as BMPs], and [http://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/Trees#Urban_Forestry urban forestry].
  
Tree BMPs are one component of urban forestry. Urban forestry is a broad term that applies to all publicly and privately owned trees within an urban area, including individual trees along streets and in backyards, as well as stands of remnant forest (Nowak et al. 2001).
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<font size=5>[[Acknowledgements for trees|Acknowledgements]]</font size>
  
The focus of this set of articles is on tree Best Management Practices rather than urban forestry.
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The following pages address incorporation of trees into stormwater management under paved surfaces.  These pages may be viewed as a [[Tree trenches and tree boxes combined|single article]]
  
<font size=4>[[Acknowledgements for trees]]</font size>
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==General information on trees==
 
*[[Overview for trees]]
 
*[[Overview for trees]]
 
*[[Types of tree BMPs]]
 
*[[Types of tree BMPs]]
 
*[[Plant lists for trees]]
 
*[[Plant lists for trees]]
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*[[Street sweeping]] - this page provides a summary of an on-going project to develop a street sweeping credit
 
*[[Street sweeping for trees]]
 
*[[Street sweeping for trees]]
 
*[[References for trees]]
 
*[[References for trees]]
 
*[[Supporting material for trees]]
 
*[[Supporting material for trees]]
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*[[Neat websites and articles for trees]]
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*[[Links to tree ordinances and forest management master plans]]
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
  
 
==Tree trenches and tree boxes==
 
==Tree trenches and tree boxes==
The following pages address incorporation of trees into stormwater management under paved surfaces
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*[[Design guidelines for tree quality and planting - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Design guidelines for soil characteristics - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Design guidelines for soil characteristics - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
*[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Construction guidelines for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance (O&M) of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes - supplemental information]]
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**[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes]] - we recommend using one of the above two pages
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*[[Assessing the performance of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Calculating credits for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Calculating credits for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Case studies for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Case studies for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Soil amendments to enhance phosphorus sorption]]
 
*[[Soil amendments to enhance phosphorus sorption]]
 
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
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*[[Summary of permit requirements for infiltration]]
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*[[Tree trench/box photo gallery]]
 
<!--
 
<!--
 
*[[Design variants for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Design variants for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
*[[Design guidelines for tree quality and planting - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
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*[[Construction observations for tree trenches and tree boxes]]-->
*[[Construction guidelines for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Construction observations for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Assessing the performance of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
-->
 
 
 
<!--
 
 
*[[Fact sheet for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
*[[Fact sheet for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]-->
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees with an underdrain as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]
  
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==Links to tables with tree information==
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*[[Tree species list - general information]]
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*[[Tree species list - morphology]]
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*[[Tree species list - tolerance to stresses]]
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*[[Tree species list - pH and moisture ranges]]
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*[[Tree species list - tolerance to inundation]]
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*[[Tree species list - additional benefits]]
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*[[Tree species list - notes]]
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*[[Tree species list - Suitable for CU structural soil]]
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*[[Tree health troubleshooting guidelines]]
  
<!--Eventually, the following information will be incorporated into this section on Trees.
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==Urban Forestry==
*Water quality benefits of trees
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For more information on urban forestry, we suggest visiting the following websites.
*Tree species list
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*[http://www.fs.fed.us/ucf/ Urban and Community Forestry] - USDA Forest Service
*Design specifications for trees and soils
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*[http://www.phila.gov/ParksandRecreation/aboutus/divisions/Pages/UrbanForestryEcosystemManagement.aspx Urban Forestry & Ecosystem Management] - City of Philadelphia
*Construction specifications
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*[http://www.forestsforwatersheds.org/reduce-stormwater/ Watershed Forestry Resource Guide] - Center for Watershed Protection and US Forest Service - Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry
*Protection of existing trees on construction sites
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*[http://www.americanforests.org/our-programs/urbanforests/ American Forests]
*O & M guidelines
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*[http://urbanforestry.frec.vt.edu/ Urban Forestry] - Virginia Tech University
*Monitoring guidelines
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*[http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/green/upload/stormwater2streettrees.pdf Stormwater to Street Trees: Engineering Urban Forests for Stormwater Management] - U.S. EPA
*Street sweeping
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*[http://greenstep.pca.state.mn.us/bestPracticesDetail.cfm?bpid=16 Green Step Cities]. This page provides a summary of urban forestry practices that cities can implement to help become a [http://greenstep.pca.state.mn.us/bestPractices.cfm Green Step City] and a list of cities that are implementing the practices, including links.
*Fact sheet
 
*Case studies
 
*Credits for pollutant removal, ET and canopy interception
 
  
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==Related pages==
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*[[Understanding and interpreting soils and soil boring reports for infiltration BMPs]]
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*[[Determining soil infiltration rates]]
  
 
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<noinclude>
'''Information on credits'''
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[[Category:Trees]]
 
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[[Category:BMP]]
Currently the Minimal Impact design Standards (MIDS) calculator is being designed to incorporate volume reductions based solely on storage and infiltration within tree boxes or tree trenches. Readers may refer to [[Bioretention|bioretention]] or [[Green roofs|green roof]] sections of the manual for more information on volume reductions based on storage and infiltration.
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</noinclude>
 
 
The manual will be expanded to include detailed information on canopy interception and evapotranspiration loss from trees. For now, readers may find information on these topics at the following sources.
 
 
 
*Canopy interception by trees
 
**Xiao et al (1998) provide estimates of precipitation retention by tree canopies.
 
**Xiao et al (2000a) describe a model to predict tree canopy interception of precipitation and provide estimates of annual precipitation interception by trees.
 
**Xiao et al (2000b) describes direct measurements of throughfall for open-grown trees.
 
**Gomez et al. (2001) provided measured values of leaf interception as a function of leaf area.
 
**Shanstrom (2011) provided estimates of gallons of stormwater interception by hackberries as a function of plant age.
 
*Evapotranspiration (ET) losses by vegetation
 
**Pitt et al discuss ET rates from bioretention devices and provides methods for calculating ET (see http://rpitt.eng.ua.edu/Class/StormWaterManagement/Fall%202009/Pitt_Evapo_final__copy_changes_accepted.pdf).
 
**DiGiovanni et al (2011) discuss the measurement and estimation of ET from urban green spaces in New York City.
 
**Hickman (2011) quantified the different components of the water budget, including ET, for bioretention systems.
 
**Nagler et al. (2003) quantified transpiration rates from different tree species.
 
 
 
References
 
*DeGiovanni, K., F. Montalto, and S. Gaffin. 2011. Measurement and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from Urban Green Spaces in New York City. Presentation at the Philadelphia Low Impact Development Symposium. Session 34, September 27, 2011.
 
*Gomez, J.A., J.V. Giraldez, and E. Fereres. 2001. Rainfall interception by olive trees in relation to leaf area. Agricultural Water Management. 49:1:65-76.
 
*Hickman, J.M. Jr. 2011. Evauation the Role of Evapotranspiration in the Hydrology of Bioinfiltration and bioretention Basins using Weighing Lysimeters. M.S. thesis, Villanova University.
 
*Nagler, P., E.P. Glenn, and T.L. Thompson. 2003. Comparison of transpiration rates among saltcedar, cottonwood and willow trees by sap flow and canopy temperature methods. Agricultural and forest Meteorology. 16:73-89.
 
*Pitt, R., S. Clark, P. Johnson, and J. Voorhees. Evapotranspiration and Related Calculations for Bioretention Devices. see http://rpitt.eng.ua.edu/Class/StormWaterManagement/Fall%202009/Pitt_Evapo_final__copy_changes_accepted.pdf
 
*Shanstrom, N. 2011. Stormwater Quantity and rate control benefits of Trees in Uncompacted Soil. See http://www.deeproot.com/blog/blog-entries/stormwater-quantity-and-rate-control-benefits-of-trees-in-uncompacted-soil
 
*Xiao, Q., E.G. McPherson, J.R. Simpson, and S.L. Ustin. 1998. Rainfall Interception by Sacremento’s Urban Forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 24:4:235-244.
 
*Xiao, Q. E.G. McPherson, S.L. Ustin, and M.E. Grismer. 2000a. A new approach to modeling tree rainfall interception. Journal of Geophysical research. 105:D23:173-188.
 
*Xiao, Q. E.G. McPherson, S.L. Ustin, M.E. Grismer, and J.R. Simpson. 2000b. Winter rainfall interception by two mature open-grown trees in Davis, California. Hydrological Processes. 14:763-784.-->
 
 
 
<!--*[[Plant lists for trees]]
 
*[[Case studies for trees]]
 
*[[Cost-benefit considerations for trees]]
 
*[[Additional considerations for trees]]
 
*[[Links for trees]]
 
*[[References for trees]]
 
*[[Supporting material for trees]]-->
 

Latest revision as of 20:13, 18 July 2022

image of Minimal Impact Design Standards logo
Green Infrastructure: Trees can be an important tool for retention and detention of stormwater runoff. Trees provide additional benefits, including cleaner air, reduction of heat island effects, carbon sequestration, reduced noise pollution, reduced pavement maintenance needs, and cooler cars in shaded parking lots.
Information: Tree trenches and tree boxes are bioretention practices. However, because of differences in design, construction and maintenance, we have created a separate section for trees.
image
*The tree interception credit has been updated. See the technical memo *This blog site has numerous blogs that may be of interest.
image of tree trenches

Use of trees to manage stormwater runoff encompasses several practices. Tree trenches and tree boxes (collectively called tree BMPs), the most commonly implemented tree BMPs, can be incorporated anywhere in the stormwater treatment train but are most often located in upland areas of the treatment train.

Tree BMPs are one component of urban forestry. Urban forestry is a broad term that applies to all publicly and privately owned trees within an urban area, including individual trees along streets and in backyards, as well as stands of remnant forest (Nowak et al. 2001). This page includes three sections covering general information about trees, tree trenches and tree boxes as BMPs, and urban forestry.

Acknowledgements

The following pages address incorporation of trees into stormwater management under paved surfaces. These pages may be viewed as a single article

General information on trees

Tree trenches and tree boxes

Links to tables with tree information

Urban Forestry

For more information on urban forestry, we suggest visiting the following websites.

Related pages

This page was last edited on 18 July 2022, at 20:13.