The basic premise for selection of a Best Management Practice (BMP) or group of BMPs is to follow the treatment train approach. Under the treatment train approach, stormwater management begins with simple methods that minimize the amount of runoff that occurs from a site and methods that prevent pollution from accumulating on the land surface and becoming available for wash-off. Even though we know that we will never be able to fully accomplish either of these goals, we can make substantial progress using the Better Site Design, Low Impact Development (LID), pollution prevention, volume minimization, and temporary construction erosion and sediment control techniques.
After all of the efforts possible are made to minimize runoff and surface wash-off, we must recognize that some potential for runoff will occur. The next major BMP then becomes collection and treatment of runoff locally and regionally, either as stand-alone practices or in treatment train combinations. Some of the available BMPs are best used to reduce runoff volume, while others focus on water quality improvement. Some BMPs will be easy to implement, while others involve serious engineering and sophisticated design. Other BMPs used in a treatment train include bioretention devices, filtration practices such as swales, infiltration practices such as infiltration trenches and infiltration basins, stormwater ponds and stormwater wetlands.
When evaluating the benefits of various BMPs, it is essential to account for the amount of water that will enter the system versus the amount that will be by-passed or diverted. Water that does not fall within the design parameters of a BMP will be sent either to another down-gradient BMP or simply routed to a receiving water untreated (not recommended). Although some BMPs, such as ponds and wetlands, will minimally treat excess water because it is routed through the BMP, other such as filtration and infiltration systems, cannot operate properly if excess water flows into them. This is an important distinction that must be evaluated for each BMP installation.
The design recommendations and expected BMP performance contained within this Manual assume that only the amount of water contained within the design will actually be treated. It is not acceptable to assume that all water falling in any event and within the area draining to a BMP will, in fact, be treated by that BMP. An analysis of every BMP installation should include an identification of where by-passed water will flow and how it could be treated.
The key to proper selection of a single or series of BMPs is to match the pollutant to be controlled against the pollutant removal mechanism of a specific BMP. For example, it is not appropriate to use a stormwater pond when temperature control is necessary; however it is very appropriate to use a pond for purposes of rate control. The definition of pollutant being utilized by the Minnesota Stormwater Manual includes both the traditional pollutants (nutrients, solids, etc.) plus the negative effects caused by thermal increases and excessive rate/speed of stormwater flows. Stormwater planners and designers will first need to understand the pollutant(s) of concern that may be generated at their sites. At the early stages of design, stormwater managers should be contacting local water management agencies (watershed districts, watershed management organizations, soil and water conservation districts, counties and/or cities) to learn which pollutants are necessary to control prior to discharge of new stormwater runoff to local waterbodies.
Pollutant removal mechanisms vary with each BMP. The key mechanisms for each group of structural BMPs can be used by stormwater managers as a preliminary screening tool.
The following BMPs that are recommended for Minnesota. Note that the order of the BMP presentation follows the treatment train sequence.
The first level of BMP application occurs at the planning stage and is intended to minimize the impact of development. These practices are intended to prevent pollution and minimize the increase in stormwater volume and are considered prior to initiation of construction or land altering activity.
Specific recommended practices include such things as:
Fact sheets exist for residential, municipal and industrial/commercial pollution practice categories (Water Quality Focus).
Better site design includes a series of techniques that reduce impervious cover, conserve natural areas, and use pervious areas to more effectively treat stormwater runoff (Center for Watershed Protection, 1998a) and promote the treatment train approach to runoff management. The goal of better site design is to reduce runoff volume and mitigate site impacts when decisions are being made about proposed layout of a development site.
Typical runoff volume reduction techniques include:
Temporary construction and sediment control practices are described in terms of perimeter, slope, drainageway and “other” criteria, and include:
These BMPs have design guidance describing the engineering details for the BMP category. This design guidance is used, for example, to determine storage volume and physical configuration that best meet the objectives of the BMP application. Also note that some of these BMPs, such as filtration, can be either a primary treatment technique or used for pre-treatment into another BMP.
Bioretention BMPs include vegetated systems that provide a combination of filtration and infiltration into a bio-system consisting of plants and soil, including:
Filtration BMPs include:
Infiltration BMPs include:
Stormwater pond design is based upon components needed to fulfill the desired function.
Selection criteria for stormwater wetlands are similar to stormwater ponds.
The final category of BMPs present those that are generally, but not always, included in the stormwater treatment train as a supplement to the primary treatment device. Although this is not generally recommended, there is the possibility that these devices could be the only BMP used. These are described in less detail than the previous sections. The designer will be guided through a process of determining the function a generic device serves within the treatment train and evaluating the proposed device against the needed function and manufacturer claims. Proprietary devices are generically described rather than listed as individual companies to avoid risking some omissions and claims of certification in the Manual.
This table shows a list of BMPs and associated pollutant removal mechanisms. Primary (removal) means the BMP was designed for this specific mechanism. Secondary (removal) means the BMP provides additional removal of pollutants for this mechanism even though the BMP was not designed for that purpose. An empty cell means the BMP provides limited or no removal for that mechanism.
Link to this table.
|Filtration||Infiltration||Settling||Biological uptake||Temperature control||Soil adsorption|
|Better Site Design/low impact development||primary||secondary||secondary||secondary||secondary||secondary|
|Runoff volume minimization||secondary||secondary|
|Temporary construction sediment control||primary|
This table shows a list of BMPs and associated volume removal mechanisms. Primary (removal) means the BMP was designed for this specific mechanism. Secondary (removal) means the BMP provides some volume control for this mechanism even though the BMP was not designed for that purpose. An empty cell means the BMP provides limited or no removal for that mechanism.
Link to this table.
|Volume control||Rate control||Velocity control||ETa|
|Better Site Design/low impact development||primary||secondary||secondary||secondary|
|Runoff volume minimization||primary||secondary|
|Temporary construction sediment control||primary||secondary|
For each scenario, describe simple treatment train options and likely range of performances. For example, a range of BMPs that could be considered for parking lots includes sweeping, sand filters around the down-gradient perimeter, swales, and tree trenches.
Each example should provide a step by step process for constructing a treatment train and placing BMPs within the treatment train. Each example will include sample calculations for volume, TSS and phosphorus credits. Each of the four treatment categories shall be included in at least one of the examples. Each of the following BMPs shall be included in at least one example:
6. Summarize five case studies where a stormwater treatment train has been implemented.