Infiltration Summary Table
Link to this table
Stormwater BMP General Overview Illustration Drainage Area Pollutant Removal Mechanism Location in Treatment Train Pollutant Removal 1,2 Potential Application 1 Cost Maintenance Requirements 3 Pre‐treatment 4 Habitat Quality 5
Infiltration Basin A natural or constructed impoundment that captures, temporarily stores and infiltrates the design volume of water into the surrounding naturally permeable soil over several days. In the case of a constructed basin, the impoundment is created by excavation or embankment.
Infiltration basin icon.png
5 to 50 acres Sedimentation / Infiltration End TSS: High

TN: Medium/High TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High Oils and Grease: High

Pathogens: High
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Limited Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: Limited
Low $0.5‐$1.3 CF Simple‐Intensive Needed Oil/Water Separator, Vegetated Filter, Sediment Basin, Water Quality Inlets Low
Bioinfiltration Basin Often called rain gardens, bioinfiltration basins use engineered or mixed soils and plantings to capture and infiltrate runoff. Pollutants are removed using highly permeable soils that are able to draw the basin down in less than 48 hours.
Bioinfiltration icon.png
< 5 acres Sedimentation / Infiltration Beginning TSS: High

TN: Low/Medium TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High

Oils and Grease: High
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Limited Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: Limited
Low $0.5‐$1.3 CF Simple‐Intensive Needed Oil/Water Separator, Vegetated Filter, Sediment Basin, Water Quality Inlets Medium‐High
Infiltration Trench Synonym: Infiltration Gallery A shallow excavated trench that is backfilled with a coarse stone aggregate allowing for the temporary storage of runoff in the void space of the material. Discharge of this stored runoff occurs through infiltration into the surrounding naturally permeable soil.
Infiltration trench icon.png
< 5 acres Infiltration nd TSS: High

TN: Medium/High TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High Oils and Grease: High

Pathogens: High
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Yes Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: Yes
Low $1‐$4 CF Medium Needed

Oil/Water Separator, Vegetated Filter, Sediment

Basin, Water Quality Inlets
None
Dry Well Synonym: Infiltration Tube, French Drain, Soak‐Away Pits, Soak Holes A smaller variation of an infiltration trench. It is a subsurface storage facility (a structural chamber or an excavated pit backfilled with a coarse stone aggregate) that receives and temporarily stores stormwater runoff. Discharge of this stored runoff occurs through infiltration into the surrounding naturally permeable soil. Due to their size, dry wells are typically designed to handle stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas.
Dry well icon.png
< 1 acres Infiltration hroughout TSS: High

TN: Medium/High TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High Oils and Grease: High

Pathogens: High
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Yes Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: No
Low $1‐$4 CF Medium Needed

Oil/Water Separator, Vegetated Filter, Water

Quality Inlets
None
Underground Infiltration Several underground infiltration systems, including pre‐manufactured pipes, vaults, and modular structures, have been developed as alternatives to infiltration basins and trenches for space‐limited sites and stormwater retrofit applications. These systems are similar to infiltration basins and trenches in that they are designed to capture, temporarily store and infiltrate the design volume of stormwater over several days. Discharge of this stored runoff occurs through infiltration into the surrounding naturally permeable soil.
Underground infiltration icon.png
< 10 acres Sedimentation / Infiltration / Flotation/Skimming End TSS: High

TN: Medium/High TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High Oils and Grease: High

Pathogens: High
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Yes Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: Limited
High 14 CF Medium Needed Oil/Water Separator, Water Quality Inlets None
Dry Swale with Check Dams Similar to vegetated swales designed for stormwater conveyance, dry swales with check dams are designed as linear, multi‐celled stormwater infiltration BMPs. By incorporating earthen, structural or rock check dams, runoff is retained and infiltrated along a series of narrow, shallow basins or cells. Coarse vegetation such as decorative plantings or even turf grass slow runoff movement. This system is designed to move, store, and infiltrate runoff from impervious surfaces such as linear roadways or parking lots.
Swale check icon.png
< 1 acres Sedimentation / Infiltration Throughout TSS: High

TN: Low/Medium TP: Low/Medium Chloride: Low Metals: High Oils and Grease: High

Pathogens: Medium
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Limited Industrial: Yes Retrofit: Limited

Highway/Road: Yes
Low $.5‐$1.3 CF Simple‐Medium Needed Vegetated Filter, Water Quality Inlets Low‐Medium
Permeable Pavement Permeable pavements are paving surfaces that allow stormwater runoff to filter through surface voids into an underlying stone reservoir for infiltration and/or storage. The most commonly used permeable pavement surfaces are pervious concrete, porous asphalt, and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP). all permeable pavements have a similar structure, consisting of a surface pavement layer, an underlying stone aggregate reservoir layer, optional underdrains and geotextile over uncompacted soil subgrade. Discharge of this stored runoff occurs through infiltration into the surrounding naturally permeable soil.
Permeable pavement icon.png
not to exceed twice the surface area of the permeable pavement Infiltration Beginning TSS: High

TN: Medium/High TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High

Oils and Grease: High
Residential: Yes

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Yes Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: Limited
Medium 3‐10 CF Medium No Pretreatment Required None
Tree Trench/Tree Box A system of trees that are connected by an underground infiltration structure. The system consists of a trench lined with geotextile fabric with structural stone, gravel or soil boxes in which the trees are placed. Tree systems consist of an engineered soil layer designed to treat stormwater runoff via filtration through plant and soil media, and through evapotranspiration from trees. Discharge of this stored runoff occurs through infiltration into the surrounding naturally permeable soil..
Tree trench icon.png
< 5 acres Infiltration, Transpiration Throughout TSS: High

TN: Medium/High TP: Medium/High Chloride: Low Metals: High Oils and Grease: High

Pathogens: High
Residential: Limited

Commercial: Yes Ultra Urban: Yes Industrial: Limited Retrofit: Yes

Highway/Road: Limited
High

$1.80 ‐ $12.70 CF based on recommended soil volume

of 1,414 CF per tree
Intensive Needed Oil/Water Separator, Water Quality Inlets Medium

References:

  • Maniquiz et al., 2010; NPRPD, 2007
  • Metropolitan Council. 2001. Urban Small Sites Best Management Practice Manual
  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. 2000. Best Management Practices Manual.
  • Pennsylvania Stormwater Manual, 2006
  • Schueler, 1987, 1992; USEPA 1993b
  • Hunt, W.F. 2011. Urban Waterways: Maintaining Permeable Pavements. Publication of North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State *University. August 2011.
  • University of Wisconsin – Extension. 2000. Wisconsin Storm Water Manual: Technical Design Guidelines for Storm Water Management Practices.
  • Winer, R. 2000. National Pollutant Removal Performance Database.


Cost References


Footnotes

  1. Treatment Capabilities and Potential Applications referenced from Manual Section "BMP's for stormwater infiltration.
  2. Low = < 30%; Medium = 30‐65%; High = 65‐100%
  3. Maintenance requirements to be addressed and updated in future section.
  4. Pretreatment requirements to be revised as per updated section.
  5. Habitat quality refers to the possible diversity of plantings commonly installed with each BMP

This page was last modified on 1 June 2016, at 09:19.

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