Reference Recommendation Notes
Lindsey and Bassuk (1991) 2 cubic feet per 1 square foot crown projection Developed a method to calculate tree soil volume needs based on tree water use (total tree canopy area, leaf area index, pan evaporation, soil available water holding capacity, and rainfall frequency)
Kopinga (1991) Need 1500 cubic feet rootable soil volume for large tree; trees with only 10 cubic meter (353 cubic feet) “reach the limits” in 10 to 20 years. Based on calculated nitrogen demands of trees and field surveys
Bakker (1983) 2.5 cubic feet rootable soil of reasonable quality per 1 square foot crown projection, reasonable soil defined as medium coarse sand with organic matter content 3 to 7 percent; later added that 1.7 cubic foot rootable soil per square foot canopy suffices if the soil is of good quality (defined as medium coarse sand with organic matter content of 7 to 8 percent) Based on his research of water consumption of containerized trees and field surveys
Kent et al. (2006) Minimum soil volume requirements species dependent, but in general, 1,500 cubic feet was required to ensure that a Disney tree would be in good condition, and 1000 cubic foot of soil for a 95 percent chance that a tree would be in good condition Based on survey of tree condition vs soil volume of 1,127 parking lot trees at Disney World
Schoenfield (1975) Roadside Dutch elms grew best if provided at least 45 cubic meters (1589 cubic feet) or more soil; growth always bad with less than 10 cubic meters (353 cubic feet) Based on field surveys in the Netherlands
Schoenfield and Burg (1984) Roadside poplars about 20 years old grew best if provided at least 50 to 60 cubic meters (1766 to 2119 cubic feet) rootable soil Based on field surveys in the Netherlands
Helliwell (1986) Soil volume about equal to one-tenth of the volume of its live canopy; 2.23 cubic feet soil per square foot canopy Rule of thumb based on field investigations for average climate of southeast England
Urban (1992) 1 to 3 cubic feet soil per 1 square foot crown projection Graph of soil volume required vs. Tree Size, synthesized from several papers attempting to establish the relationship between tree growth and soil volume (Lindsey and Bassuk 1991, Perry 1985, Perry 1989, Urban 1989)

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