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{{alert|This page is an edit and testing page use by the wiki authors.  It is not a content page for the Manual. Information on this page may not be accurate and should not be used as guidance in managing stormwater.|alert-danger}}
 
{{alert|This page is an edit and testing page use by the wiki authors.  It is not a content page for the Manual. Information on this page may not be accurate and should not be used as guidance in managing stormwater.|alert-danger}}
  
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[[Table of Contents test page]]
  
==Green Infrastructure==
 
  
The concept of green infrastructure is about creating infrastructure that mimics, restores or maintains natural hydrology. Green infrastructure includes a wide array of practices at multiple scales that manage wet weather and that maintains or restores natural hydrology by infiltrating, evapotranspiring, or harvesting and using stormwater. On a regional scale, green infrastructure is the preservation or restoration of natural landscape features, such as forests, floodplains and wetlands, coupled with policies such as infill and redevelopment that reduce overall imperviousness in a watershed. On the local scale, green infrastructure consists of site and neighborhood-specific practices, such as bioretention, trees, green roofs, permeable pavements and cisterns
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<!--
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<imagemap>
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Image:Stormwater BMPs.png|500px|thumb|alt=imagemap for stormwater BMPs|<font size=3>Stormwater Best Management Practices. Mouse hover over an '''i''' box to read a description of the practice, or click on an '''i''' box to go to a page on the practice.</font size>
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circle 30 125 30 [[Infiltration|Infiltration basins, infiltration trenches, dry wells, and underground infiltration systems capture and temporarily store stormwater before allowing it to infiltrate into the soil. As the stormwater penetrates the underlying soil, chemical, biological and physical processes remove pollutants and delay peak stormwater flows.]]
 +
circle 270 125 30 [[Bioretention|Bioretention (rain garden) is a terrestrial-based (up-land as opposed to wetland) water quality and water quantity control process. Bioretention employs a simplistic, site-integrated design that provides opportunity for runoff infiltration, filtration, storage, and water uptake by vegetation.]]
 +
circle 600 125 30 [[Trees|Tree trenches and tree boxes (collectively called tree BMP(s)), the most commonly implemented tree BMPs, can be incorporated anywhere in the stormwater treatment train but are most often located in upland areas of the treatment train. The strategic distribution of tree BMPs help control runoff close to the source where it is generated. Tree BMPs can mimic certain physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in the natural environment.]]
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circle 690 150 30 [[Permeable pavement|Permeable pavements allow stormwater runoff to filter through surface voids into an underlying stone reservoir for temporary storage and/or infiltration. The most commonly used permeable pavement surfaces are pervious concrete, porous asphalt, and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP). Permeable pavements have been used for areas with light traffic at commercial and residential sites to replace traditional impervious surfaces in low-speed roads, alleys, parking lots, driveways, sidewalks, plazas, and patios.]]
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circle 920 125 30 [[Stormwater and rainwater harvest and use/reuse|A stormwater harvesting and use system is a constructed system that captures and retains stormwater for beneficial use at a different time or place than when or where the stormwater was generated. A stormwater harvesting and use system potentially has four components: collection system (which could include the catchment area and stormwater infrastructure such as curb, gutters, and stormsewers), storage unit (such as a cistern or pond) treatment system: pre and post (that removes solids, pollutants and microorganisms, including any necessary control systems), if needed, and the distribution system (such as pumps, pipes, and control systems).]]
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circle 1130 125 30 [[Green roofs|Green roofs consist of a series of layers that create an environment suitable for plant growth without damaging the underlying roof system. Green roofs create green space for public benefit, energy efficiency, and stormwater retention/ detention. Green roofs occur at the beginning of stormwater treatment trains. Green roofs provide filtering of suspended solids and pollutants associated with those solids, although total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations from traditional roofs are generally low. Green roofs provide both volume and rate control, thus decreasing the stormwater volume being delivered to downstream Best Management Practices (BMPs).]]
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circle 30 325 30 [[Dry swale (Grass swale)|Dry swales, sometimes called grass swales, are similar to bioretention cells but are configured as shallow, linear channels. They typically have vegetative cover such as turf or native perennial grasses. Dry swales may be constructed as filtration or infiltration practices, depending on soils. If soils are highly permeable (A or B soils), runoff infiltrates into underlying soils. In less permeable soils, runoff is treated by engineered soil media and flows into an underdrain, which conveys treated runoff back to the conveyance system further downstream. Check dams incorporated into the swale design allow water to pool up and infiltrate into the underlying soil or engineered media, thus increasing the volume of water treated.]]
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circle 270 325 30 [[Wet swale (wetland channel)|Wet swales occur when the water table is located very close to the surface or water does not readily drain out of the swale. A wet swale acts as a very long and linear shallow biofiltration or linear wetland treatment system. Wet swales do not provide volume reduction and have limited treatment capability. Incorporation of check dams into the design allows treatment of a portion or all of the water quality volume within a series of cells created by the check dams. Wet swales planted with emergent wetland plant species provide improved pollutant removal. Wet swales may be used as pretreatment practices. Wet swales are commonly used for drainage areas less than 5 acres in size.]]
 +
circle 600 325 30 [[High-gradient stormwater step-pool swale|Stormwater step pools address higher energy flows due to more dramatic slopes than dry or wet swales. Using a series of pools, riffle grade control, native vegetation and a sand seepage filter bed, flow velocities are reduced, treated, and, where applicable, infiltrated. The physical characteristics of the stormwater step pools are similar to Rosgen A or B stream classification types, where “bedform occurs as a step/pool, cascading channel which often stores large amounts of sediment in the pools associated with debris dams”. Stormwater step pools are designed with a wide variety of native plant species depending on the hydraulic conditions and expected post-flow soil moisture at any given point within the stormwater step pool.]]
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circle 820 325 30 [[Vegetated filter strips|Vegetated filter strips are designed to remove solids from stormwater runoff. The vegetation can consist of natural and established vegetation communities and can range from turf grass to woody species with native grasses and shrubs. Because of the range of suitable vegetation communities, vegetated filter strips can be easily incorporated into landscaping plans; in doing so, they can accent adjacent natural areas or provide visual buffers within developed areas. They are best suited for treating runoff from roads, parking lots and roof downspouts. Their primary function is to slow runoff velocities and allow sediment in the runoff to settle or be filtered by the vegetation. By slowing runoff velocities, they help to attenuate flow and create a longer time of concentration. Filter strips do not significantly reduce runoff volume, but there are minor losses due to infiltration and depression storage. Filter strips are most effective if they receive sheet flow and the flow remains uniformly distributed across the filter strip.]]
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circle 1040 325 30 [[Iron enhanced sand filter (Minnesota Filter)|Iron-enhanced sand filters are filtration Best Management Practices (BMPs) that incorporate filtration media mixed with iron. The iron removes several dissolved constituents, including phosphate, from stormwater. Iron-enhanced sand filters may be particularly useful for achieving low phosphorus levels needed to improve nutrient impaired waters. Iron-enhanced sand filters could potentially include a wide range of filtration BMPs with the addition of iron; however, iron is not appropriate for all filtration practices due to the potential for iron loss or plugging in low oxygen or persistently inundated filtration practices.]]
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circle 1130 325 30 [[Filtration|Sand (media) filters have widespread applicability and are suitable for all land uses, as long as the contributing drainage areas are limited (e.g., typically less than 5 acres). Sand filters are not as aesthetically appealing as bioretention, which makes them more appropriate for commercial or light industrial land uses or in locations that will not receive significant public exposure. Sand filters are particularly well suited for sites with high percentages of impervious cover (e.g., greater than 50 percent). Sand filters can be installed underground to prevent the consumption of valuable land space (often an important retrofit or redevelopment consideration).]]
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circle 170 525 30 [[Stormwater ponds|Stormwater ponds are typically installed as an end-of-pipe BMP at the downstream end of the treatment train. Stormwater pond size and outflow regulation requirements can be significantly reduced with the use of additional upstream BMPs. However, due to their size and versatility, stormwater ponds are often the only management practice employed at a site and therefore must be designed to provide adequate water quality and water quantity treatment for all regulated storms.]]
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circle 265 525 30 [[Stormwater wetlands|Stormwater wetlands are similar in design to stormwater ponds and mainly differ by their variety of water depths and associated vegetative complex. They require slightly more surface area than stormwater ponds for the same contributing drainage area. Stormwater wetlands are constructed stormwater management practices, not natural wetlands. Like ponds, they can contain a permanent pool and temporary storage for water quality control and runoff quantity control. Wetlands are widely applicable stormwater treatment practices that provide both water quality treatment and water quantity control. Stormwater wetlands are best suited for drainage areas of at least 10 acres. When designed and maintained properly, stormwater wetlands can be an important aesthetic feature of a site.]]
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circle 600 525 30 [[Pretreatment|Pretreatment practices are installed immediately preceding one or more structural stormwater BMPs. Pretreatment reduces maintenance and prolongs the lifespan of structural stormwater BMPs by removing trash, debris, organic materials, coarse sediments, and associated pollutants prior to entering structural stormwater BMPs. Implementing pretreatment devices also improves aesthetics by capturing debris in focused or hidden areas.]]
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circle 820 510 30 [[Sediment control practices|Sediment control practices are designed to prevent or minimize loss of eroded soil at a site. Typical sediment control practices focus on 1) physical filtration of sediment by trapping soil particles as water passes through a silt fence, drop inlet screen, fiber roll, etc., 2)settling processes, that allow sediment to fall out of flows that are slowed and temporarily impounded in ponds, traps, or in small pools created by berms, silt fencing, inlet protection dikes, check dams, etc.]]
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circle 1040 500 30 [[Erosion prevention practices|Erosion prevention practices include 1) planning approaches that minimize the size of the bare soil area and the length of time disturbed areas are exposed to the elements – especially for long, steep slopes and easily erodible soils, 2) diverting or otherwise controlling the location and volume of run-on flows to the site from adjacent areas, 3)keeping concentrated flows in ditches stabilized with vegetation, rock, or other material, and 4)covering bare soil with vegetation, mulch, erosion control blankets, turf reinforcement mats, gravel, rock, plastic sheeting, soil binder chemicals, etc.]]
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circle 1235 525 30 [[Pollution prevention|Pollution prevention (P2) is a “front-end” method to decrease costs, risks, and environmental concerns. In contrast to managing pollution after it is created, P2 reduces or eliminates waste and pollution at its source. P2 includes a variety of residential, municipal, and industrial practices.]]
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</imagemap>
  
In other words, the idea is to improve and maintain water quality by using less concrete / pipes and more native landscaping to achieve good water quality.  There is a certain natural aesthetic tied into the concept of green infrastructure.  A turf covered depression may function close to the same as a rain garden.  But the natural aesthetic of the garden with native plants makes the rain garden infrastructure more closely mimic the natural  (pre-development) hydrology.  As will be detailed in the articles below beyond the benefits of infiltrating stormwater runoff in a rain garden there are other benefits to a rain garden being a garden. 
 
  
===Background===
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<imagemap>
 +
Image:Updated MPCA_Small_Site_Graphic.JPG|Image map test
 +
circle 55 152 15 [[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
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circle 55 291 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice - stockpile management|Stockpile management]]
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circle 55 378 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice - construction materials management requirements|Construction materials management]]
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circle 55 447 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice - construction materials management requirements|Construction materials management]]
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circle 55 564 15 [[Sediment control practices - Perimeter controls for disturbed areas]]
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circle 55 714 15 [[Sediment control practices - Storm drain inlet protection]]
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circle 55 813 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice – Concrete, paint, stucco and other washout guidance]]
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circle 383 817 15 [[Sediment control practices - Vehicle tracking BMPs]]
 +
circle 388 527 18 [[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
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circle 395 634 18 [[Sediment control practices - Storm drain inlet protection]]
 +
circle 545 579 18 [[Construction stormwater best management practice – Concrete, paint, stucco and other washout guidance]]
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circle 624 433 18 [[Construction stormwater best management practice - construction materials management requirements|Construction materials management]]
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circle 667 753 18 [[Sediment control practices - Vehicle tracking BMPs]]
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circle 784 677 18 [[Construction stormwater best management practice – Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan]]
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circle 838 805 15 [[Sediment control practices - Perimeter controls for disturbed areas]]
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circle 939 358 18 [[Construction stormwater best management practice - construction materials management requirements|Construction materials management]]
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circle 1004 421 18 [[Construction stormwater best management practice - stockpile management|Stockpile Management]]
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circle 1035 660 15 [[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
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circle 1110 136 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice – Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan]]
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circle 1182 557 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice – Site stabilization]]
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circle 1132 711 15 [[Construction stormwater best management practice – Site stabilization]]
 +
circle 1297 450 18 [[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
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rect 449 170 507 185 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_5_Stormwater_Pollution_Prevention_Plan_(SWPPP)_Content#5.24 The SWPPP must describe methods to minimize soil compaction and preserve topsoil. Minimizing soil compaction is not required where the function of a specific area dictates compaction.]
 +
rect 409 327 459 342 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_8_Erosion_Prevention_Practices#8.4 Permittees must stabilize all exposed soil areas, including stockpiles. Stabilization must be initiated immediately to limit soil erosion when construction activity has ceased on any portion of the site and will not resume for a period exceeding 14 calendar days. Stabilization must be completed no later than 14 calendar days after the construction activity has ceased. Stabilization is not required on certain temporary stockpiles but must provide sediment controls at the base of the stockpile.]
 +
rect 310 397 368 412 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_12_Pollution_Prevention_Management_Measures#12.2 Permittees must place building products and landscape materials under cover (e.g., plastic sheeting or temporary roofs) or protect them by similarly effective means designed to minimize contact with stormwater. Permittees are not required to cover or protect products which are either not a source of contamination to stormwater or are designed to be exposed to stormwater.]
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rect 107 514 165 529 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_12_Pollution_Prevention_Management_Measures#12.5 Permittees must properly store, collect and dispose solid waste in compliance with Minn. R. ch. 7035.]
 +
rect 258 665 308 680 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_9_Sediment_Control_Practices#9.2 Permittees must establish sediment control BMPs on all downgradient perimeters of the site and downgradient areas of the site that drain to any surface water, including curb and gutter systems. Permittees must locate sediment control practices upgradient of any buffer zones. Permittees must install sediment control practices before any upgradient land-disturbing activities begin and must keep the sediment control practices in place until they establish permanent cover.]
 +
rect 243 765 293 780 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_9_Sediment_Control_Practices#9.7 Permittees must protect all storm drain inlets using appropriate BMPs during construction until they establish permanent cover on all areas with potential for discharging to the inlet.]
 +
rect 39 882 98 896 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_12_Pollution_Prevention_Management_Measures#12.9 Permittees must provide effective containment for all liquid and solid wastes generated by washout operations related to the construction activity. Permittees must prevent liquid and solid washout wastes from contacting the ground and must design the containment so it does not result in runoff from the washout operations or areas. ermittees must properly dispose liquid and solid wastes in compliance with MPCA rules. Permittees must install a sign indicating the location of the washout facility.]
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rect 447 900 506 914 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_9_Sediment_Control_Practices#9.11 Permittees must install a vehicle tracking BMP to minimize the track out of sediment from the construction site or onto paved roads within the site.]
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rect 1254 237 1309 252 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_20_SWPPP_Availability Permittees must keep the SWPPP, including all changes to it, and inspections and maintenance records at the site during normal working hours by permittees who have operational control of that portion of the site.]
 +
rect 1218 797 1268 812 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_8_Erosion_Prevention_Practices#8.4 Permittees must stabilize all exposed soil areas, including stockpiles. Stabilization must be initiated immediately to limit soil erosion when construction activity has permanently or temporarily ceased on any portion of the site and will not resume for a period exceeding 14 calendar days. Stabilization must be completed no later than 14 calendar days after the construction activity has ceased. Stabilization is not required on constructed base components of roads, parking lots and similar surfaces.]
 +
rect 1209 863 1268 878 [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MN_CSW_Permit_Section_23_Discharges_to_Special_(Prohibited,_Restricted,_Other)_and_Impaired_Waters#23.9 Permittees must immediately initiate stabilization of exposed soil areas, as described in item 8.4, and complete the stabilization within seven (7) calendar days after the construction activity in that portion of the site temporarily or permanently ceases.]
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</imagemap>
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-->
  
Water is continually on the move on, above and below the surface of the earth.  This movement is called the water cycle (AKA: hydrological cycle or H2O cycle).  The water moves by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different phases: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor.  To talk about the water cycle is to talk about:
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<!--
*The state of the water - liquid, solid (frozen) or gas (vapor)
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
*where it is relative to the surface of the earth  -  below (ground water), on (surface water), above (humidity)
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'''Information'''
*location (city , state, country, named ocean, etc.)
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">'''
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Information_on_soil Information on soil]
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*[[Compost and stormwater management]]'''</div>
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</div>
  
The total amount of water on earth is considered to have been more or less constant for hundreds of millions of years.  What is not constant is the amount of water that is liquid, gas or solid that is below, on or above the surface at a particular location.  Again in plain language less ice means more liquid water (higher sea levels) and / or more humidity.  Pumping out groundwater means more surface water and / or more humidity.  There are many scenarios which would illustrate how the balance in the water cycle changes yet the total amount of water on earth does not change. 
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<font size=5>Reporting phosphorus and TSS reduction credits from street sweeping</font size>
  
Water is requirement for all known living organisms. The trick is to the water supporting life is the water has to be of a certain range quality.   Fish needs some oxygen to be dissolved in the water to survive. Thousands of species of fish live in the saline oceans but humans cannot survive drinking ocean water because of the saline. Water quality is about  the concentration of what is suspended or dissolved in the water. When we talk about water quality it is relative to ability to support various uses of the water. Water is an excellent solvent.  The list of things that will dissolve in water is very long.  Even many things that don't dissolve in water will suspend in water.  
+
[[File:Selbig graph.png|400px|thumb|alt=graph of P removal with street sweeping|<font size=3>Research conducted by Bill Selbig (USGS) shows that streets, when cleaned of leaf litter prior to a storm, can significantly decrease phosphorus loads in stormwater runoff ([https://www.usgs.gov/centers/umid-water/science/using-leaf-collection-and-street-cleaning-reduce-nutrients-urban?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects Link to study])</font size>]]
 +
At this time, the MPCA has not developed guidance for how to credit reductions in phosphorus or total suspended solid loading associated with enhanced street sweeping. We anticipate developing this guidance in 2022. In developing  this guidance, consider the following.
 +
*Baseline: Credits toward permit compliance, such as compliance with <span title="The amount of a pollutant from both point and nonpoint sources that a waterbody can receive and still meet water quality standards"> [https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Total_Maximum_Daily_Loads_(TMDLs) '''total maximum daily loads''']</span>, can only be applied toward enhanced street sweeping. This is sweeping that results in pollutant reductions above pollutant reductions associated with sweeping that occurred at the <span title="The year from which stormwater practices can be credited toward meeting a total maximum daily load (TMDL) wasteload allocation (WLA)"> '''[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Baseline_year baseline year]'''</span>.
 +
*Accounting for seasonality: The image on the right illustrates the seasonal nature of phosphorus loading in areas where leaves and other organic sources are a source of phosphorus. Most models and other methods of estimating annual loads do not consider this seasonality and most likely significantly underestimates annual phosphorus loading. Accurate representation of impacts from enhanced street sweeping will require adjusting initial (baseline) calculations of loading. The MPCA is discussing appropriate methods for accounting for this seasonality.
 +
*Downstream BMPs: Enhanced street sweeping potentially impacts loading to and performance of downstream BMPs. The MPCA is discussing if adjustments in downstream loading and/or adjustments in BMP performance are needed to accurately determine changes in phosphorus loading in areas where enhanced street sweeping is implemented.
  
In the past several centuries, man has changed the natural hydrology by adding infrastructure.  For example:
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-->
*impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots, buildings
 
*drainage ditches
 
*Drain tiles
 
*cleared huge swaths of land
 
**recreation
 
**logging
 
**agriculture
 
*temperature (climate change)
 
*and the like
 
  
The result of these activities has adversely affected the water quality and changed the hydrologic balance.  The goal of Green infrastructure is to move back to a more natural hydrology while supporting the needs of our civilized world. 
+
<!--
  
This portal has links to numerous articles relating to various aspects of using natural hydraulic methods to preserve and restore good water quality.  In other words, this portal is about providing information about the use of green infrastructure.
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[[Ecosystem Function of vegetation in stormwater management]]
 +
==Habitat==
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===Pollinators & Insects===
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===Birds===
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===Mammals===
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===Reptiles===
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===Amphibians===
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===Humans===
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===Aquatic Species===
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==Nutrient Cycling==
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===Primary Producers===
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===Terrestrial Food Chain===
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===Aquatic Food Chain===
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===Carbon Sequestration===
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===Oxygen & air quality benefits===
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==Soil Regeneration==
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-->
  
Conceptually Green Infrastructure is about using nature and engineering to mimic the effects of natural hydrology.
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<!--
 +
<p dir="ltr" style="background-color:#d5fdf4; font-size:30px; text-align: center;" role="presentation" class="zfr3Q CDt4Ke">
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<a href="https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Street_Sweeping_Phosphorus_Credit_Calculator_How-to-Guide">
 +
Donate
 +
</a>
 +
</p>
  
===Introduction to pre-development hydrology===
 
  
===Introduction to Water quality===
 
  
  
===Resources===
 
  
[http://www.usgbc.org/articles/green-infrastructure-back-basics Green infrastructure: Back to basics]
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<p dir="ltr" style="background-color:#d5fdf4; font-size:30px; text-align: center;" role="presentation" class="zfr3Q CDt4Ke">
 +
<a href="https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Street_Sweeping_Phosphorus_Credit_Calculator_How-to-Guide">
 +
<span role="link" class="I4aHG">
 +
<span style="text-decoration:underline;" class="aw5Odc" data-ri="0">Donate
 +
</span>
 +
</span>
 +
</a>
 +
</p>
  
 
+
<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_infrastructure Green infrastructure - wikipedia]
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'''BMPs'''
 
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
[https://www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure/what-green-infrastructure What is Green Infrastructure? - EPA]
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
 
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:'''Bioretention'''
[http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/GI/Pages/index.aspx Green Infrastructure - Using natural systems to meet environmental challenges in urban, rural and coastal settings]
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
+
*[[Bioretention terminology]] (including types of bioretention)
[http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/GI/Documents/Green%20Infrastructure/Green_Infra_Primer2016_FINAL%20web%20version.pdf Green Infrastructure Primer]
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*[[Overview for bioretention]]
 
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*[[Design criteria for bioretention]]
[https://www.pca.state.mn.us/water/stormwater-management-low-impact-development-and-green-infrastructure Stormwater management: Low-impact development and green infrastructure]
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*[[Construction specifications for bioretention]]
 
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*[[Operation and maintenance of bioretention and other stormwater infiltration practices]]
 
+
*[[Operation and maintenance of bioretention and other stormwater infiltration practices - supplemental information]]
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue-Green_Cities Blue-Green Cities]
+
**[[Operation and maintenance of bioretention]] - we recommend using the above two pages
 
+
*[[Assessing the performance of bioretention]]
[http://www.bluegreencities.ac.uk/bluegreencities/index.aspx BlueGreenCities]
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*[[Cost-benefit considerations for bioretention]]
 
+
*[[Calculating credits for bioretention]]
[http://bgd.org.uk/ Blue Green Dream]
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of bioretention]]
 
+
*[[Soil amendments to enhance phosphorus sorption]]
[http://www.susdrain.org/#_ Sustainable Drain]
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*[[Summary of permit requirements for bioretention]]
 
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Category:Bioretention_photo Bioretention photos]
[http://www.stormwater.asn.au/ Stormwater Australia]
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Category:Bioretention_schematic Bioretention schematics]
 
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*[https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Category:Bioretention_table Bioretention tables]
[http://savetherain.us/ Save the rain]
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*[[Supporting material for bioretention]]
 
+
*[[External resources for bioretention]]
[https://www.asla.org/ContentDetail.aspx?id=24076 Professional Practice - Green Infrastructure - American Society of Landscape Architects]
+
*[[References for bioretention]]
 
+
*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using bioretention with no underdrain BMPs in the MIDS calculator]]
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_drainage_system Sustainable drainage system]
+
*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using bioretention with an underdrain BMPs in the MIDS calculator]]</div>
 
+
</div>
[http://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/34598 Green Infrastructure - City of Portland Oregon]
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
 
+
:'''Tree trenches'''
 
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
[https://www.epa.gov/green-infrastructure/green-infrastructure-and-climate-change-collaborating-improve-community Green Infrastructure and Climate Change: Collaborating to Improve Community Resiliency]
+
*[[Design guidelines for tree quality and planting - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
+
*[[Design guidelines for soil characteristics - tree trenches and tree boxes]]
[http://www.conservationfund.org/what-we-do/strategic-conservation-planning Green Infrastructure, The Conservation Fund]
+
*[[Construction guidelines for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
+
*[[Protection of existing trees on construction sites]]
 
+
*[[Operation and maintenance (O&M) of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
+
*[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes - supplemental information]]
 
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**[[Operation and maintenance of tree trenches and tree boxes]] - we recommend using one of the above two pages
====Anne G. thoughts for Green Infrastructure Web Page in Stormwater Manual====
+
*[[Assessing the performance of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
+
*[[Calculating credits for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
+
*[[Case studies for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
Include:
+
*[[Soil amendments to enhance phosphorus sorption]]
 
+
*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of tree trenches and tree boxes]]
 
+
*[[Summary of permit requirements for infiltration]]
''''Definition of GI:''''  this is what’s in the manual now:
+
*[[Tree trench/box photo gallery]]
 
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*[[Fact sheet for tree trenches and tree boxes]]
green infrastructure -means a wide array of practices at multiple scales that manage wet weather and that maintains or restores natural hydrology by infiltrating, evapotranspiring, or harvesting and using stormwater. On a regional scale, green infrastructure is the preservation or restoration of natural landscape features, such as forests, floodplains and wetlands, coupled with policies such as infill and redevelopment that reduce overall imperviousness in a watershed. On the local scale, green infrastructure consists of site and and neighborhood-specific practices, such as bioretention, trees, green roofs, permeable pavements and cisterns
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]
 
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using trees with an underdrain as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]
Notice all the green call-out boxes for green infrastructure.
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</div>
 
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
''''GI BMP’s:  ''''
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:'''Permeable pavement'''
*Permeable pavement (link to page)
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
*Green roofs (link to page)
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*[[Overview for permeable pavement]]
*Harvest and Use (link to page)
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*[[Types of permeable pavement]]
*Trees (link to page)
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*[[Design criteria for permeable pavement]]
*Bioretention (link to page)
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*[[Construction specifications for permeable pavement]]
*Infiltration
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*[[Assessing the performance of permeable pavement]]
 
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*[[Operation and maintenance of permeable pavement]]
 
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*[[Calculating credits for permeable pavement]]
''''GI and Climate Change/Adaptation/Resiliency''''
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*[[Case studies for permeable pavement]]
*EPA: State Water Agency Practices for Climate Change Adaptation:  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-10/documents/mn_stormwater_manual_final.pdf
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*[[Green Infrastructure benefits of permeable pavement]]
*EPA:  Flood Loss Avoidance Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-05/documents/flood-avoidance-green-infrastructure-12-14-2015.pdf
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*[[Summary of permit requirements for infiltration]]
*EPA Green Infrastructure for Climate Resiliency Infographic:  https://www.epa.gov/file/green-infrastructure-climate-resiliency-infographic
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*[[Permeable pavement photo gallery]]
*Link to MPCA’s climate adaption strategy: https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/p-gen4-10.pdf
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*[[Additional considerations for permeable pavement]]
*Link to MN Interagency Climate Adaption Team report: https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/p-gen4-07.pdf: 
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*[[Links for permeable pavement]]
 
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*[[References for permeable pavement]]
The MPCA’s Stormwater Program has been addressing the issues related to climate change adaptation  since 2005 with the first issuance of the Minnesota Stormwater Manual. It advanced the concept of treating water on site, using low impact design, and volume control best management practices (BMPs). Since then, stormwater permits have advanced these BMPs, and MPCA has worked to set goals and quantify credits for using these BMPs through the Minimal Impact Design Standards (MIDS) Project. Consistent with MIDS are BMPs that can increase infiltration and reduce runoff (including green infrastructure like rain gardens, urban forestry/trees, pervious pavement, swales, etc.) Local units of government have traditionally worked to get water off the landscape as quickly as possible. In the last couple of decades, the MPCA has started addressing pollutant and rate control. We are now beginning to address volume control. Volume control, and working to mimic natural hydrology, helps to result in less dramatic runoff events, which reduces stream erosion and scouring. Impervious surfaces are increasing faster than population growth. This increase in impervious surface coupled with larger storm events will have a significant impact on receiving waters. Stormwater capture and reuse is an opportunity to reduce runoff and reap benefits from heavier rainfalls while reducing demands on the potable water supply.
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using permeable pavement BMPs in the MIDS calculator]]
 
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*[[Fact sheets for permeable pavement]]
NOAA Atlas 14 updates are being utilized to more accurately reflect precipitation intensities and durations. NOAA Atlas 14 incorporates 50 additional years of data into the estimate of precipitation 27 intensity and durations, and could account for changes that may be related to climate change. These estimates, used as an engineering standard, are vital to ensure proper design of culverts, storm sewers, and water quality devices.
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*[[Recent news and information for permeable pavement]]
 
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</div>
In August 2013, the reissued Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) General Permit became effective, which regulates stormwater discharge from counties, cities, townships and other publicly owned entities in urbanized areas. The goal of the MS4 program is to prevent or reduce the discharge of pollutants to stormwater, and ultimately, surface waters. This permit’s provisions will help to address problems of erosion and water pollution associated with heavy precipitation events.
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<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%">
 
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:'''Green roof'''
 
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
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*[[Overview for green roofs]]
''''GI and health benefits:''''
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*[[Types of green roofs]]
 
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*[[Design criteria for green roofs]]
''''GI and sustainable communities:''''  EPA:  Enhancing Communities with Green Infrastructure: https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/enhancing-sustainable-communities-green-infrastructure
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*[[Construction specifications for green roofs]]
 
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*[[Assessing the performance of green roofs]]
 
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*[[Operation and maintenance (O&M) of green roofs]]
''''For municipalities:  ''''
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*[[Operation and maintenance of green roofs - supplemental information]]
 
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**[[Operation and maintenance of green roofs]] - we recommend using the above two pages
Integrating GI : EPA:  GI Opportunities that Arise During Municipal Operations: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/green_infrastructure_roadshow.pdf
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*[[Calculating credits for green roofs]]
Meet permit requirements with GI:
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*[[Cost-benefit considerations for green roofs]]
 
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*[[Plant lists for green roofs]]
 
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*[[Case studies for green roofs]]
''''GI Costs/Benefits''''
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*[[Links for green roofs]]
 
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*[[References for green roofs]]
 
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*[[Supporting material for green roofs]]
 
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*[[Green roofs terminology and glossary]]
'''''GI and brownfield development: '''''
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*[[Green roof fact sheet]]
 
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*[[Requirements, recommendations and information for using green roofs as a BMP in the MIDS calculator]]</div>
 
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</div>
''''Link to other reports:''''
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</div>
EQB
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Latest revision as of 01:03, 1 December 2022

Warning: This page is an edit and testing page use by the wiki authors. It is not a content page for the Manual. Information on this page may not be accurate and should not be used as guidance in managing stormwater.

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This page was last edited on 1 December 2022, at 01:03.