References for bioretention

References for dry swale (grass swale)

  • Brown, R.A. and Hunt, W.F. 2010. Impacts of construction activity on bioretention performance. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 15(6):386-394.
  • Erickson, A.J., P.T. Weiss, and J.S. Gulliver. 2013. Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance. Springer Publishing, New York, NY, USA.
  • Gulliver, J.S., A.J. Erickson, and P.T. Weiss (editors). 2010. Stormwater Treatment: Assessment and Maintenance. University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. Minneapolis, MN.
  • Hatt, B.E., Steinel, A., Deletic, A., and Fletcher, T.D. 2011. Retention of heavy metals by stormwater filtration systems: Breakthrough analysis. Water, Science, and Technology. 64(9):1913-1919.
  • Hunt, W.F., Jarrett, A.R., Smith, J.T., and Sharkey, L.J. 2006. Evaluating bioretention hydrology and nutrient removal at three field sites in North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 132(6):600-608.
  • Lefevre, G.H., P.J. Novak, R.M. Hozalski. 2012. Fate of naphthalene in laboratory-scale bioretention cells: implications for sustainable stormwater management. Environmental Science and Technology 46(2):995-1002.
  • Li, H. and Davis, A.P. 2008. Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media. Environmental Science & Technology. 42:5247-5253.
  • Morgan, J.G., K.A. Paus, R.M. Hozalski and J.S. Gulliver. 2011. Sorption and Release of Dissolved Pollutants Via Bioretention Media. SAFL Project Report No. 559. September 2011.
  • North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 2009. NCDENR Stormwater BMP Manual – Section 14, Grassed Swale.
  • O’Neill, S.W. and Davis, A.P. 2012. Water treatment residual as a bioretention amendment for phosphorus. I: Evaluation studies. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 138(3), 318-327.
  • Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VA DCR). 2011. Virginia DCR Stormwater Design Specification No. 3 – Grass Channels. Version 1.8, March 1, 2011. Division of Soil and Water Conservation. Richmond, VA.
  • Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VA DCR). 2011. Virginia DCR Stormwater Design Specification No. 10 – Dry Swales. Version 1.9, March 1, 2011. Division of Soil and Water Conservation. Richmond, VA.

References for green roofs

  • ASTM. 2005. Method E2399-5, Standard Test Method for Maximum Media Density for Dead Load Analysis of Green Roof Systems. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
  • Bengtsson, L., L. Grahn, and J. Olsson. 2005. Hydrological function of a thin extensive green roof in southern Sweden. Nordic Hydrol. 36 (3), 259–268.
  • Berghage, R. Penn State Center for Green Roof Research. Green Roof Media Nutrient Testing, Nutrient Management, and Runoff Water Quality. Presentation to NASA Workshop.
  • Berghage, R.D., D.Beattie, A. R. Jarrett, C. Thuring, F. Razaei, and T. P. O’Connor. 2009. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control. National Risk Management Research Laboratory Office Of Research And Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, OH 45268. EPA/600/R-09/026.
  • Berghage, R. D., and A. R. Jarrett. 2007. Quantifying Evaporation and Transpirational Water Losses from Green Roofs and Green Roof Media Capacity for Neutralizing Acid Rain. National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project, Penn State University.
  • Berghage, R., C. Miller, B. Bass, D. Moseley, and K. Weeks. 2010. Stormwater Runoff from a Large Commercial Roof in Chicago. Proceedings Cities Alive Conference. Vancouver, Canada. Nov 30-Dec 3.
  • Berndtsson, J. C. 2010. Green roof performance towards management of runoff water quantity and quality: A review. Ecological Engineering, 36, 351-360.
  • Butler, C., and C.M. Orians. 2011. Sedum cools soil and can improve neighboring plant performance during water deficit on a green roof. Ecological Engineering,37(11): 1796–1803.
  • Cantor, S. L. 2008. Green Roofs in Sustainable Landscape Design. W.W.Norton, NY.
  • Carpenter, D.D., Kaluvakolanu, P. 2011. Effect of roof surface type on stormwater run-off from full-scale roofs in a temperate climate. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 137:161-169.
  • Carter, Timothy, and Andrew Keeler. 2008. Life-Cycle cost–benefit Analysis of Extensive Vegetated Roof Systems. Journal of environmental management 87:350-363.
  • Carter, T., Rasmussen, T. 2006. Hydrological behavior of vegetated roofs. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42, 1261-1274.
  • Compton, J. S., and T. H. Whitlow. 2006. A Zero Discharge Green Roof System and Species Selection to Optimize Evapotranspiration and Water Retention. Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Boston, MA, May 11-12, 2006.
  • David Evans and Associates, Inc. and ECONorthwest. 2008. Cost Benefit Evaluation Of Ecoroofs. Prepared for: City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services Sustainable Stormwater Group.
  • Durhman, A.K. D. B. Rowe, and C. L. Rugh. 2007. Effect of Substrate Depth on Initial Growth, Coverage, and Survival of 25 Succulent Green Roof Plant Taxa. HORTSCIENCE 42(3):588–595. 2007.
  • Durhman, A.K., D.B. Rowe, and C.L. Rugh. 2006. Effect of watering regimen on chlorophyll fluorescence and growth of selected green roof plant taxa. HortScience 41:1623–1628.
  • Dvorak, B, and K. Carroll. 2008. Chicago City Hall Green Roof: Its Evolving Form and Care. Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities Conference Proceedings, Baltimore, MD.
  • Dvorak, B., and A. Volder. 2010. Green Roof Vegetation for North American Ecoregions: A Literature Review. Landscape and Urban Planning 96: 197-213.
  • Fassman, E. and Simcock, R. 2012. Moisture Measurements as Performance Criteria for Extensive Living Roof Substrates. J. Environ. Eng., 138(8), 841–851. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000532
  • Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau e.V. (FLL) Richlinien für die Planung, Ausführung and Plege von Dachbegrünung (Guideline for the Planning, Execution and Upkeep of Green-Roof Sites: developed by the German Research Society for Landscape Development and Landscape Design)
  • Getter, K.L.; Rowe, D.B. 2008. Selecting Plants for Extensive Green Roofs in the United States. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-3047.
  • Getter, K.L., Rowe, D.B., Andresen, J.A., 2007. Quantifying the effect of slope on extensive green roof stormwater retention. Ecological Engineering, 31, 225-231.
  • Green Roofs for Healthy Cities and The Cardinal Group. 2006. Green Roof Design 101: Introductory Course. Second Edition Participant’s Manual.
  • Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. No publication year given. Green Roof Infrastructure: Design and Installation 201.
  • Green Roofs for Healthy Cities (GRHC). 2005. Green Roof Design 101 Introductory Course Participant Manual. Green Roofs for Healthy Cities and the Cardinal Group Inc.
  • Lundholm J, J.S. MacIvor, Z. MacDougall, and M. Ranalli. 2010. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9677. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.
  • Magnuson Klemenic Associates. 2007. Technical Memorandum: Stormwater Control Potential for Seattle Green Roof Retrofits. Seattle Public Utilities Green Roof Retrofit Study.
  • Mandel, L.. 2013. EAT UP; The Inside Scoop on Rooftop Agriculture. New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, BC, Canada.
  • Mentens, J., Raes, D. & Hermy, M. 2006. Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff problem in the urbanized 21st century? Landscape and Urban Planning, 77, 217-226.
  • Miller, C. 2003. Moisture management in green roofs. In: Proc. of 1st North American Green Roof Conference: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities. The Cardinal Group. Toronto, Chicago, IL, 29–30 May 2003. p. 177–182.
  • Miller, C., K. Weeks, B. Bass, R. Berghage, and S. Berg. 2010. Stormwater Policy As A Green Roof (Dis)Incentive For Retail Developers. Cities Alive 8th Annual Green roof &Wall Conference, Vancouver, November 30-December 03, 2010.
  • Monterusso, M.A., D.B. Rowe, and C.L. Rugh. 2005. Establishment and persistence of Sedum spp. and native taxa for green roof applications. HortScience 40:391–396.
  • Moran, A., B. Hunt, and J. Smith. 2005. Hydrologic and water quality performance from green roofs in Goldsboro and Raleigh, North Carolina, p. 512-525. In Proc. of 3rd North American Green Roof Conference: Greening rooftops for Sustainable Communities. Washington, DC. 4-6 May 2005. The Cardinal Group, Toronto.
  • National Institute of Building Sciences. Whole Building Design Guide.
  • Peck, S.W. and M.E. Kuhn, 2002. Design Guidelines for Green Roofs. Report prepared for the Ontario Association of Architects and the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Toronto, Ontario.
  • Porsche, U. and M. Kohler. 2003. Life Cycle Costs of Green Roofs: A Comparison of Germany, USA, and Brazil. Presented at the World Climate and Energy Event. December 1-5, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • Rezaei, F., A.R. Jarrett, R.D. Berghage, and D.J. Beattie. 2005. Evapotranspiration Rates from Extensive Green Roof Plant Species. ASAE Meeting Presentation Paper Number 052150. Written for presentation at the 2005 ASAE Annual International Meeting Sponsored by ASAE, Tampa Convention Center. Tampa, FL 17-20 July 2005.
  • Rowe, B.D. 2011. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement. Environmental Pollution 159: 2100-2110.
  • Rowe, D.B., C.L. Rugh, N. VanWoert, M.A. Monterusso, and D.K. Russell. 2003. Green roof slope, substrate depth, and begetation influence runoff. p. 354-362 In Proc. Of 1st North American Green Roof Conferences: Greening rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Chicago. 29-30 May 2003. The Cardinal Group, Toronto.
  • Rowe, D. Bradley, Kristin L. Getter, and Angela K. Durhman. 2012. Effect of green roof media depth on Crassulacean plant succession over seven years. Landscape and Urban Planning (Elsevier) 104: 310-319.
  • Rowe, D.B., C.L. Rugh, and A.K. Durhman. 2006. Assessment of substrate depth and composition on green roof plant performance. Proc. of 4th North American Green Roof Conference: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities. Boston, Mass. 10–12 May 2006. The Cardinal Group, Toronto.
  • Saiz, S., et al. 2006. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Standard and Green Roofs. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 4312-4316.
  • Simmons, M.T., B. Gardiner, S. Windhager, and J. Tinsley. 2008. Green roofs are not created equal: the hydrologic and thermal performance of six different extensive green roofs and reflective and non-reflective roofs in a sub-tropical climate. Urban Ecosyst. 11, 339–348.
  • Sinclair, T.R.; N.M. Holbrook, and M.A. Zwieniecki. 2005. Daily Transpiration Rates of Woody Species on Drying Soil. Tree Physiology 25: 1469-1472. Victoria Canada.
  • Snodgrass, E.C. and L.L. Snodgrass. 2006. Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide. Timber Press. Portland, OR.
  • Sutton, R.K.; J.A. Harrington; L. Skabelund; P. MacDonagh; R. R. Coffman; and G. Koch. 2012. Prairie-Based Green Roofs: Literature, Templates, and Analogs. Journal of Green Building 7(1):143-172.
  • Sutton, R.; B. Rowe;G. Acomb; J. Lambrinos; P. MacDonagh; R. Hawke. 2012. New Plant Performance for 21st Century Green Roof Ecosystems. Cities Alive Conference, Chicago IL.
  • Taylor, B. L. and D. Gangnes. 2007. Technical Memorandum: Stormwater Control Potential for Seattle Green Roof Retrofits. Seattle Public Utilities Green Roof Retrofit Study.
  • Teemusk, A., and U. Mander. 2007. “Rainwater runoff quantity and quality performance from a greenroof: The effects of short-term events.” Ecol. Eng., 30(3), 271–277.
  • Toronto and Region Conservation. An Economic Analysis of Green Roofs: Evaluating the Costs and Savings to Building Owners in Toronto and Surrounding Regions. Sustainable Technologies Evaluation Program. July.
  • Torrance, S.; B. Bass, S. MacIvor and T. McGlade in conjunction with Toronto City Planning Division. No publication year given. City of Toronto Guidelines for Biodiverse Green Roofs].
  • Ulrich, R.S. 2002. Health Benefits of Gardens in Hospitals. Paper for Conference, Plants for People, International Exhibition Floriade.
  • Van Seters, T., L. Rocha, and G. MacMillan, G. Evaluation of the runoff quantity and quality performance of an extensive green roof in Toronto, Ontario. Proceedings of the Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Minneapolis, 2007.
  • VanWoert, N.D., D.B. Rowe, J.A. Andresen, C.L. Rugh, and L. Xiao. 2005. Watering regime and green roof substrate design affect Sedum plant growth. HortScience 40:659–664.
  • Villarreal, E. L. and L. Bengtsson (2005). Response of a sedum green-roof to individual rain events. Ecological Engineering 25(1): 1-7.
  • Voyde, E., E. Fassman, R. Simcock, and J. Wells. 2010. ”Quantifying Evapotranspiration Rates for New Zealand Green Roofs.” J. Hydrol. Eng. 15, SPECIAL ISSUE: Low Impact Development, Sustainability Science, and Hydrological Cycle, 395–403.
  • Whittinghill, L.J. and D.B. Rowe. 2012. The role of green roof technology in urban agriculture. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 27(4):314-322.
  • Whittinghill, L.J., D.B. Rowe, and B.M. Cregg. 2013. Evaluation of vegetable production on extensive green roofs. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(4):465-484.
  • Whittinghill, L.J.; D.B. Rowe, 2011. Salt tolerance of common green roof and green wall plants. Urban Ecosystems 14(4):783-794.

References for high-gradient stormwater step-pool swale

  • Anne Arundel County. 2009. Design Guidelines for Step Pool Storm Conveyance. Anne Arundel County Government. Department of Public Works. Bureau of Engineering.
  • Anne Arundel County. Step Pool Conveyance Systems (SPCS) Design Calculator.
  • Brown, R.A. and Hunt, W.F. 2010. Impacts of construction activity on bioretention performance. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 15(6), 386-394.
  • Gulliver, J.S., A.J. Erickson, and P.T. Weiss (editors). 2010. Stormwater Treatment: Assessment and Maintenance. University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. Minneapolis, MN.
  • Hatt, B.E., Steinel, A., Deletic, A., and Fletcher, T.D. 2011. Retention of heavy metals by stormwater filtration systems: Breakthrough analysis. Water, Science, and Technology. 64(9), 1913-1919.
  • Hunt, W.F., Jarrett, A.R., Smith, J.T., and Sharkey, L.J. 2006. Evaluating bioretention hydrology and nutrient removal at three field sites in North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 132(6), 600-608.
  • Lefevre, G.H., P.J. Novak, R.M. Hozalski. 2012. Fate of naphthalene in laboratory-scale bioretention cells: implications for sustainable stormwater management. Environmental Science and Technology 46(2):995-1002.
  • Li, H. and Davis, A.P. 2008. Heavy metal capture and accumulation in bioretention media. Environmental Science & Technology. 42, 5247-5253.
  • Morgan, J.G., K.A. Paus, R.M. Hozalski and J.S. Gulliver. (2011). Sorption and Release of Dissolved Pollutants Via Bioretention Media. SAFL Project Report No. 559, September 2011.
  • North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 2009. NCDENR Stormwater BMP Manual – Section 14, Grassed Swale.
  • O’Neill, S.W. and Davis, A.P. (2012). Water treatment residual as a bioretention amendment for phosphorus. I: Evaluation studies. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 138(3), 318-327.
  • Rosgen, D.. 1996. Applied River Morphology. Wildland Hydrology.
  • Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VA DCR). 2011. Virginia DCR Stormwater Design Specification No. 3 – Grass Channels. Version 1.8, March 1, 2011. Division of Soil and Water Conservation. Richmond, VA.
  • Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VA DCR). 2011. Virginia DCR Stormwater Design Specification No. 10 – Dry Swales. Version 1.9, March 1, 2011. Division of Soil and Water Conservation. Richmond, VA.
  • West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection. 2012. West Virginia Stormwater Management and Design Guidance Manual. Section 4.2.7: Regenerative Stormwater Conveyance System (RSC). November 2012.

References for infiltration

References for iron enhanced sand filter

  • Banchand, P.A. M., and A. Heyvaert. 2005. Adsorptive Media Investigations and Testing for Improved Performance of Stormwater Treatment Systems in the Tahoe Basin. Prepared for Placer County Department of Public Works, Auburn, CA, and California Tahoe Conservancy, South Lake Tahoe, CA. Prepared by Bachand and Associates, and U.C. David Tahoe Research Group.
  • Barr Engineering Company. 2010. Iron-enhanced sand filter monitoring – 2010. December 28, 2010 Report to the Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District.
  • Center for Watershed Protection & Chesapeake Stormwater Network (CWP & CSN). 2008. Technical Memorandum: The Runoff Reduction Method. April 18, 2008
  • City of Bellevue Utilities Department and Shapiro and Associates. 1999. Lakemont storm water treatment facility monitoring program. Final Report. City of Bellevue Utilities Department. 301 116th Avenue SE. Bellevue, WA 98009-9012.
  • Claytor, R.A., and T.R. Schueler. 1996. Design of stormwater filtering systems. Prepared by The Center for Watershed Protection. 8391 Main Street, Ellicott City, MD 21043. Prepared for Chesapeake Research Consortium. (410) 461-8323.
  • Erickson, A.J., Gulliver, J.S., and P.T. Weiss. 2012. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration. Water Research. Vol. 26, pp. 3032-3042.
  • Erickson, A.J. and J.S Gulliver. 2010. Performance Assessment of an Iron-Enhanced Sand Filtration Trench for Capturing Dissolved Phosphorus. Project Report No. 549, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Prepared for the City of Prior Lake, Minnesota
  • Erickson, A.J., Gulliver, J.S., and P.T. Weiss. 2007. Enhanced sand filtration for storm water phosphorus removal. Journal of Environmental Engineering. pp. 485-497. May 2007.
  • MNDOT 2005. MnDOT Standard Specifications Book, Division III – Materials, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, Minnesota.
  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). 2008. Minnesota Stormwater Manual, Version 2.
  • Rawls, W. J., Gimenez, D., Grossman, R. 1998. Use of soil texture, bulk density, and slope of the water retention curve to predict saturated hydraulic conductivity. Transaction of the ASAE. Vol. 41(4): 983-988.

References for permeable pavement

References for pretreatment

  • Abu-Zreig, M., R. P. Rudra, H. R. Whiteley, M. N. Lalonde, and N. K. Kaushik. 2003. Phosphorus Removal in Vegetated Filter Strips. Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 613–619.
  • Abu-Zreig, M., R. P. Rudra, M. N. Lalonde, H. R. Whiteley, and N. K. Kaushik. 2004. Experimental Investigation of Runoff Reduction and Sediment Removal by Vegetated Filter Strips. Hydrological Processes, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp. 2029–2037.
  • Barrett, M. E., P. M. Walsh, J. F. Malina, R. J. Charbeneau. 1998. Performance of Vegetative Controls for Treating Highway Runoff. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 11, pp. 1121–1128.
  • Blanco-Canqui, H., C. J. Gantzer, S. H. Anderson, and E. E. Alberts. 2004. Grass Barriers for Reduced Concentrated Flow Induced Soil and Nutrient Loss. Soil Science, Vol. 68, pp. 1963-1972.
  • California Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Draft Amendments to Statewide Water Quality Control Plans to Control Trash. Prepared by the California Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA.
  • California Department of Transportation. 2004. BMP Retrofit Pilot Program Final Report. CTSW-RT-01-050. Prepared by the California Department of Transportation CALTRANS, Division of Environmental Analysis, Sacramento, CA.
  • City of Madison. 2015. Leave the Leaf.
  • Coventry University. 1996. Laboratory Tests Conducted in the School of the Built Environment Coventry University, UK on X-CEPTOR CONCRETE BYPASS INTERCEPTOR Also Known As STORMCEPTOR in North America. Prepared by Coventry University. UK for CSR Humes (UK) Ltd. Pontyclun, Whales.
  • Contech Engineered Solutions. 2006. Vortechs® Technical Bulletin 5. Vortechs System Performance: Oil Removal Efficiency. Prepared by Contech Engineered Solutions, West Chester, OH.
  • Contech Engineered Solutions. 2006. Vortechs® Technical Bulletin 2. Particle Distribution of Sediments and the Effect on Heavy Metal Removal. Prepared by Contech Engineered Solutions, West Chester, OH.
  • Comprehensive Environmental Inc. and New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 2008. New Hampshire Stormwater Manual, Volume 2, Post-Construction Best Management Practices Selection & Design. Prepared by Comprehensive Environmental Inc. Merrimack, NH, and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, NH.
  • District Department of the Environment (DDOE). 2013. Stormwater Management Guidebook.
  • District Department of Environment. 2013. Anacostia River Watershed Trash TMDL Implementation Strategy. Prepared by the District Department of Environment. Stormwater Management Division.
  • Goel, P.K., R.P. Rudra, B. Gharabaghi, S. Das, and N. Gupta. 2004. Pollutants Removal by Vegetated Filter Strips Planted with Different Grasses. 2004 American Society of Association Executives/Canadian Society for Engineering in Agricultural, Food, and Biological Systems. Paper Number 042177. Fairmont Chateau Laurier. The Westin, Government Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada. August 1–4.
  • Gharabaghi, B., R. P. Rudra, H. R. Whitely, and W. T. Dickinson. 2000. Sediment-Removal Efficiency of Vegetative Filter Strips. 2000 Annual Research Report. Prepared by the Guelph Turfgrass Institute, Guelph, ON, Canada.
  • Horsley Witten Group, University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center, and Loon Environmental. 2010. Rhode Island Stormwater Design and Installation Standards Manual. Prepared by Horsley Witten Group, Sandwich, MA; University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center, Durham, NH; and Loon Environmental, LLC, Riverside, RI; for the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Providence, RI, and the Coastal Resources Management Council, Wakefield, RI.
  • Inver Grove Heights, 2006. Inver Grove Heights Stormwater Manual 2006. Prepared by Emmons & Olivier Resources, Inc. Oakdale, MN.
  • Kayhanian, M., Suverkropp, C., Ruby, A., and Tsay, K. 2007. Characterization and prediction of highway runoff constituent event mean concentration. J. Environ. Manage. 85, 279.
  • Maestre, A., and Pitt, R. 2005. The National Stormwater Quality Database, Version 1.1: A Compilation and Analysis of NPDES Stormwater Monitoring Information. University of Alabama. Center for Watershed Protection.
  • Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, 2008. Massachusetts Stormwater Handbook, Volume 2. Prepared by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Boston, MA.
  • Maniquiz-Redillas, M. C., F. K. Geronimo, and L. H. Kim. 2014. Investigation on the Effectiveness of Pretreatment in Stormwater Management Technologies. Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 1824–1830.
  • New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2014. Chapter 9.10 Standard for Vegetative Filters. New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. Prepared by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Watershed Management, Trenton, NJ.
  • New Jersey Corporation for Advanced Technology. 2015. NJCAT Technology Verification Program
  • Taylor, W. B., J. Marsalek, D. Doede, and C. He. 2003. Performance Evaluation of the EcoStorm Stormwater Treatment System as a Sediment Retention Device. Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington/Saskatoon. AEM-TN03-005.
  • Taylor, G. D., T. D. Fletcher, T. H. Wong, P. F. Breen, and H. P. Duncan. 2005. Nitrogen Composition in Urban Runoff - Implications for Stormwater Management. Water Research, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1982–1989.
  • Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. 2014. Best Management Practices Handbook. Prepared by the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, Stateline, NV.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2012. Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Mercury, Trash, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2014. Trash and Debris Management.
  • Virginia Department of Ecology. 1999. Virginia Stormwater Management Handbook, First Edition. Volumes 1 and 2. Prepared by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Soil and Water Conservation, Richmond, VA.
  • Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. 2011. Appendix D: Sediment Forebay. Version 1.0, Virginia Stormwater Design Specifications. Prepared by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality Division of Water, Richmond, VA.
  • Washington Department of Ecology. 2015. Stormwater Treatment Technologies Approved through TAPE and CTAPE.
  • Wilson, M., O. M. Gulliver, and R. Hozalski. 2007. Performance Assessment of Underground Stormwater Treatment Devices. 2007-46. Prepared by the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, for the Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN.
  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2014. Bioretention for Infiltration. Technical Note 1004.


References for stormwater and rainwater harvest and use/reuse

Because of the large number of references on the topic of harvest and use, this list of references correspond with the different sections of the harvest and use section of the manual.

Overview

Design process and sequencing

Design feasibility phase

Design phase storage siting

Design

Required Storage Capacity

  • Lawson,Sarah, Adrienne LaBranche-Tucker, Hans Otto Wack, Rick Hall, Benjamin Sojka, Ed Crawford, David Crawford, and Cabell Brand. 2009. Virginia Rainwater Harvesting Manual. 2nd Edition. Compiled by The Cabell Brand Center, Salem, VA. See Storage Tanks, Tank Sizing.
  • North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NC DEQ). April 2014. North Carolina Stormwater BMP Manual. Rainwater Harvesting. Draft document. See Section 25.4.8 – Section 25.4.11.
  • Department of Environment and Conservation, New South Wales. April 2006. Managing Urban Stormwater: Harvesting and Reuse. Sydney, Australia, ISBN 1 74137 875 3. See Section 6.3.1, Storage Volume.

Storage Unit

Collection System

Treatment System

  • Metropolitan Council. Fall 2011. Stormwater Reuse Guide. Prepared by Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc. and others. St. Paul, MN. See Toolbox R.4 and I.3 – Treatment
  • Despins, Christopher. September 2012. Guidelines for Residential Rainwater Harvesting Systems Handbook. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). ISBN 978-1-100-21183-1. See Chapter 3, Rainwater quality treatment; Table 3-2: Comparison of advantages and disadvantages associated with pre- and post-storage treatment; Table 3.3: Summary of post-storage treatment options (Ontario Guide); and Chapter 3-3: Select and install pre-storage treatment devices.
  • Georgia Department of Community Affairs (DCA). 2009. Georgia Rainwater Harvesting Guidelines. Atlanta, GA. See Section 4.4 and Section 5.3 – Section 5.4.
  • Lawson,Sarah, Adrienne LaBranche-Tucker, Hans Otto Wack, Rick Hall, Benjamin Sojka, Ed Crawford, David Crawford, and Cabell Brand. 2009. Virginia Rainwater Harvesting Manual. Compiled by The Cabell Brand Center, Salem, VA. See Design Guide, First flush diversion and pre-tank filtration - Design Guide, Additional treatment.
  • Macomber, Patricia S. 2010. Guidelines on Rainwater Catchment Systems for Hawaii. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. University of Hawaii at Manoa. ISBN 1-929325-23-1. See Chapter 4, Water Treatment.
  • North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NC DEQ). April 2014. North Carolina Stormwater BMP Manual. Chapter 25, Rainwater Harvesting. Draft document. See Section 25.4.16 and Section 25.4.22.
  • Texas Water Development Board. 2005. The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting. 3rd Edition. Austin, TX. See Chapter 3, Water Quality and Treatment.
  • Despins, Christopher. 2010. Ontario Residential Rainwater Harvesting Guidelines. See Table 3.3: Summary of post-storage treatment options (Ontario Guide).

Distribution System

Makeup Water Supply System & Backflow Prevention

Operation and maintenance

Environmental concerns

Calculating credits

References for stormwater infiltration

A

B

  • Bean, E.Z., W.F. Hunt, D.A. Bidelspach, 2007b. Evaluation of Four Permeable Pavement Sites in Eastern North Carolina for Runoff Reduction and Water Quality Impacts. ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 133: No. 6: 583-592.
  • Bean, E.Z., W.F. Hunt, D.A. Bidelspach. 2007a. A Field Survey of Permeable Pavement Surface Infiltration Rates. ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 133: no. 3: 249-255.
  • Beard, P.J. 1940. Longevity of Eberthalla Typhosus in Various Soils. American Journal of Public Health and Nations Health. 1077-82.
  • Betts, Lynn. 1999. Runoff of Soil & Fertilizer. In Wikipedia, edited by Wikimedia.
  • Birch, G. F., M.S. Fazeli, and C. Matthai. 2005. Efficiency of an Infiltration Basin in Removing Contaminants from Urban Stormwater. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 101: nos. 1-3: 23-38.
  • Bitton, G., and C.P Gerba. 2004. Microbial Pollutants: Their Survival and Transport Pattern to Groundwater. Groundwater Pollution Microbiology.
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  • Braga, Andrea; Horst, Michael; Traver, Michael. 2007. Temperature Effects on the Infiltration Rate through an Infiltration Basin BMP. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 133: no. 6: 598 605
  • Brattebo, B. O. and D. B. Booth. 2003. Long-term Stormwater Quantity and Quality Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems. Water Research 37: no. 18: 4369-4376.
  • Brown, R. A., and W. F. Hunt. 2001. Underdrain Configuration to Enhance Bioretention Exfiltration to Reduce Pollutant Loads. Journal of Environmental Engineering 137: no. 11: 1082-1091.
  • Browne, D., A. Deletic, G.M. Mudd, and T.D. Fletcher. 2011. Modeling the Development and Consequences of Clogging for Stormwater Infiltration Trenches. 12th International Conference on Urban Drainage, September 11, 2011, 1-16.
  • Browne, D., A. Deletic, G.M. Mudd, and T.D. Fletcher. 2011. A Comparison of the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Range of Infiltration Basin Trench Systems in Melbourn with Sandy Loam and Sandy Clay Surrounding Soils with and Without Clogging. Photograph. 12th International Conference on Urban Drainage. September 11, 2011.

C

D

  • Dalgleish, Janet B., and E. Calvin Alexander, Jr.. 1984. Sinkholes and Sinkhole Probability. Map. Winona County, MN. University of Minnesota, MN USGS, and Winona County Board of Commissioners.
  • Davis, A. P., M. Shokouhian, H. Sharma, and C. Minami. 2001. Laboratory Study of Biological Retention for Urban Stormwater Management. Water Environmental Research. 5-14.
  • Davis, A. P., M. Shokouhian, H. Sharma, and C. Minami. 2006. Water Quality Improvement through Bioretention Media: Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal. Water Environmental Research 78: no.3: 5-14.
  • Davis, A. P., M. Shokouhian, H. Sharma, C. Minami and D. Winogradoff. 2003. Water Quality Improvement through Bioretention: Lead, Copper, and Zinc Removal. Water Environmental Research. 73-82.
  • Dechesne, M., S. Barraud, and J.P Bardin. 2005. Experimental Assessment of Stormwater Infiltration Basin Evolution. Journal of Environmental Engineering 131: no. 7:1090-98.
  • Denich, Chris and Andrea Bradford. 2013. Estimation of Evapotranspiration from Bioretention Areas Using Weighing Lysimeters. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 15: no. 6: 522-530.
  • Denton, Robert. 2008. The Characterization and Remediation of Sinkholes. [Powerpoint Slides]. Potomac Environmental Services.
  • Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences. Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic Conditions. Technical report no. 301. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, n.d.
  • Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Watershed Management. 2006. Chapter 6: Structural BMPs. In Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. N.p.: n.p.
  • Department of Planning/Environment and Resource Protection Program, Bureau of Resource Management. 2004a. Water Resource Management Manual: Carroll County, Maryland. May ed. Westminster, MD: Carroll County Government.
  • DiBlasi, C. J., H. Li, A. P. Davis, and U. Ghosh. 2009. Removal and Fate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollutants in an Urban Stormwater Bioretention Facility. Environmental Science and Technology 43, no. 2 (2009): 494-502.
  • Domey, William R. 2002. Effect of Underlying Groundwater System on the Rate of Infiltration of Stormwater Infiltration Structures. Storm Water Infiltration & Groundwater Recharge A Conference on Reducing Runoff while Maintaining Water Quality, May 21, 2002. 1-9.
  • Drinking Water Protection Program. Maps and Geospatial Data: Source Water Protection. Minnesota Department of Health.

E

  • Emerson, C.H., & Traver, R.G. 2008. Multiyear and seasonal variation of infiltration from storm-water best management practices. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 135, no. 5: 593-601.
  • Environmental Science Institute. What is Karst? Caves: A Window into the Edwards Aquifer.
  • Erickson, A.J, J.S. Gulliver, and P.T. Weiss. 2012. Capturing Phosphates with Iron Enhanced Sand Filtration. Water Research 46:3032-42.
  • Erickson, Andrew J., Weiss, Peter T., Gulliver, John S. 2013. Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices, A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance. Springer, New York.
  • Erosion Management Program. 2013. What You Should Know as a Ravine or Bluff Property Owner. Toronto and Region Conservation.

F

  • Fenwick, Ryan. 2012. Sustainable Water Management on Brownfield Sites. University of Louisville, Center for Environmental Policy and Management, October 2012, 1-12.
  • Fischer, D., E.G Charles, and A.L Baehr. 2003. Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins. Journal of Environmental Engineering 129, no. 5:464-71.

G

  • Gao, Yongli, E. Calvin Alexander, Jr., and Robert G. Tipping. 2002. The develeopment of a Karst Feature database for Southeastern Minnesota. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64, no. 1: 51 57.
  • Ginn, T.R, B.D Wood, K.E Nelson, T.D Scheibe, E.M Murphy, and T.P Clement. 2002. Processes in Microbial Transport in the Natural Surbsurface. Advances in Water Resources 25: no. 8: 1017-42.
  • Green, Jeffery A., E. Calvin Alexander, Jr., William J. Marken, and Scott C. Alexander. 2002. Karst Hydrogeomorphic Units. Map. Mower County, MN: MN DNR, Divison of Waters and University of Minnesota, Department of Geology and Geophysics.
  • Gulliver, J.S., A.J. Erickson and P.T. Weiss, Eds.. 2010. Stormwater Treatment: Assessment and Maintenance. St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2009.
  • Gurdak J., and Qi L. Sharon. 2012. Vulnerability of Recently Recharged Groundwater in Principle Aquifers of the United States to Nitrate Contamination. Environmental Science and Technology 46: 6004-12.

H

  • Hantush, M.S. 1967. Growth and Decay of Groundwater Mounds in Response to Uniform Percolation. Water Resources Research 3, no. 1:227-234.
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  • Hathaway, Jon M., E.I., and William F. Hunt. 2008. Urban Waterways: Removal of Pathogens in Stormwater. North Carolina Cooperative Extension, 1-10.
  • Hewes, Will. [https://aquiferalliance.org/Library/LibraryFiles/Resources/Using_Green_Infrastructure_in_Karst_Regions_American_Riv.pdf Using Green Infrastructure in Karst Regions. American Rivers. 1-5.
  • Hogland, W., M. Marques, and V. Karlaviciene. 2003. Stormwater Runoff from Industrial Areas and Pollution Transport. Proceedings from 1st International Conference on Urban Drainage and Highway Runoff in Cold Climate. Riksgansen, Sweden.
  • Hollander, Justin, Niall Kirkwood, and Julia Gold. 2010. Principles of Brownfield Regeration: Cleanup, Design, and Reuse of Derelict Land. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
  • Hong, E., E. A. Seagren, and A. P. Davis. 2006. Sustainable Oil and Grease Removal from Synthetic Stormwater Runoff Using Bench0Scale Bioretention Studies. Water Environment Research 78: no. 2: 141-155.
  • Hoogestraat, Galen. 2013. Runoff Flowing through Arrowhead Golf Course. Photograph. USGS South Dakota Water Science Center: Stormwater Monitoring in Rapid City. January 7, 2013.
  • Hossain, M.A., Furumai H, Nakajima F, and Aryal R.K. 2007. Heavy Metals Speciation in Soakaways Sediment and Evaluation of Metal Retention Properties of Surrounding Soil. Water Science & Technology 56, no. 11:81-89.
  • Hsieh, C.H. and A. P. Davis. 2005. Evaluation and Optimization of Bioretention Media for Treatment of Urban Storm Water Runoff. Journal of Environmental Engineering 131, no. 11:1521-1531.
  • Hunt, W. F., A. R. Jarrett, J. T. Smith and L. J. Sharkey. 2006. Evaluation Bioretention Hydrology and Nutrient Removal at three Field Sites in North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation Drainage Engineering 132, no. 6:600-608.

J

  • Jammal, S. E., J. W. Casper, A. M. Sallam, D. Fratta, A. J. Puppala, and B. Munhunthan. 2010. Development Mechanism and Remediation of Multiple Spontaneous Sinkholes: A Case History. Proceedings of GeoFlorida: Advances in Analysis, Modeling and Design. pp 681-688.

K

  • Kakuturu, S. and Clark, S. 2015. Effects of Deicing Salts on the Clogging of Stormwater Filter Media and on the Media Chemistry. J. Environ. Eng., 141(9), 04015020.
  • Karathanasis, A., T. Mueller, B. Boone, and Y. Thompson. 2006. Effect of Soil Depth and Texture on Fecal Bacteria Removal from Septic Effluents. Journal of Water and Health 4, no. 3: 395-404.
  • Karst Working Group. 2009. Stormwater Guidelines for Karst Terrain in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Version 2.0. Technical report no. 1. N.p.: Chesapeake Stormwater Network.
  • Kibbey, H.J, D. Hagedorn, and E.L McCoy. 1987. Use of Fecal Streptococci as Indicators of Pollution in Soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 35, no. 4:711-17.
  • Komlos, J., and T. G. Traver. 2012. Long-term Orthophosphate Removal in a Field-scale Storm-water Bioinfiltration Rain Garden. Journal of Environmental Engineering 138, no. 10: 991-998.
  • Kroening, Sharon, and Mark Ferrey. 2013. The Condition of Minnesota's Groundwater, 2007-2011. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. August 2013.

L

  • Laughland, John Charles. 2007. Stormwater Management Design in Karst Terrane: Adjusting Hydrology Models and Using Karstic Features. Facility Design Group. pp. 1-6.
  • Lawrence, S.J. 2006. Description, Properties, and Degradation of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Detected in Ground Water – A Review of Selected Literature. Review. U.S. Geological Survey.
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  • Li, H. and A. P. Davis. 2009. Water Quality Improvement through Reductions of Pollutant Loads Using Bioretention. Journal of Environmental Engineering 135, no. 8:567-576.
  • Li, L. and A. P. Davis. 2014. Urban Stormwater Runoff Nitrogen Composition and Fate in Bioretention Systems. Environmental Science and Technology 48, no. 6: 3403-3410.
  • Lin, C., Greenwald, D., & Banin, A. 2003. Temperature dependence of infiltration rate during large scale water recharge into soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67, no. 2, 487-493.
  • Low Impact Development, Inc. 2007. Nitrogen Cycle in Soil. Image. Urban Design Tools.

M

  • Machusick, M.D. and R. G. Traver. 2009. The Observed Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Groundwater. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers. pp 5343-5353.
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  • Maniquiz, Marla C., Lee So-Young, and Kim Lee-Hyung. 2010. Long-Term Monitoring of Infiltration Trench for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control. Water, Air & Soil Pollution 212, nos. 1-4:13-26.
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  • Marder, Jenny. 2011. Ice Salt Truck. Photograph. PBS NEWSHOUR: How Does Salt Battle Road Ice? January 18, 2011.
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  • Minnesota Department of Health. July 1, 2007. Flow Chart for Evaluating Proposed Stormwater Infiltration Projects in Areas with Vulnerable Groundwater. Drinking Water Protection Program. Illustration.
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  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2014. Groundwater Pollution Sensitivity. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Last modified 2014.
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N

O

  • Olson, N.C., J.S. Gulliver, J.L. Nieber and M. Kayhanian. 2013. Remediation to Improve Infiltration into Compact Soils. Journal of Environmental Management. 117:85-95
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P

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  • Pitt, R., S. Clark, and K. Parmer. 1994. Pollution Removal Process in the Subsurface. Photograph.
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R

S

T

  • Tate, R.L. 1978. Cultural and Environmental Factors Affecting the Longevity of Escherichia coli in Water: A Current Perspective. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 35: no. 5: 925-29.
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U

V

W

Z

References for stormwater ponds

References for stormwater wetlands

References for trees

This list contains references for all tree articles in the Manual. Reference lists can also be found on each individual tree page.

  • Allison, R.A., F.H.S. Chiew, and T. A. McMahon. 1998. Nutrient Contribution Of Leaf Litter In Urban stormwater. Journal of Environmental Management. 54: 269-272.
  • Baker, Brent, D. M. Olszyk, and D. Tingey. 1996. Digital Image Analysis to Estimate Leaf Area. Journal of Plant Physiology. 148: 530-535.
  • Baker, Donald G., W.W. Nelson, and E.L. Kuehnast. 1979. Climate of Minnesota Part XII - The Hydrologic Cycle and Soil Water. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Series/Report No.: Technical Bulletin 322.
  • Bakker. J.W. 1983. Groeiplaats en watervoorziening van straatbomen. Groen. 39(6)205-207; OBIS, 1988. Bomen in straatprofielen – Voorbeelden – Groeiplaatsberekening. Uitgeverij van de Vereniging van de Nederlandse gemeenten, ‘s-Gravenhage 1988. 63 p. Cited in Kopinga 1991.
  • Barret, M., M. Limouzin, and D. Lawler. 2011. Performance Comparison of Biofiltration Designs. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011. pp. 395-404.
  • Bassuk, Nina. 2010. Using CU-Structural Soil to Grow Trees Surrounded by Pavement. In The Great Soil Debate Part II: Structural soils under pavement. ASLA Annual Meeting Handout.
  • Bassuk, Nina, Jason Grabosky, Anthony Mucciardi, and Gary Raffel. 2011. Ground-penetrating Radar Accurately Locates Tree Roots in Two Soil Media Under Pavement. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 37(4): 160–166.
  • Bassuk, Nina, Jason Grabosky, and Peter Trowbridge]. 2005. Using CU-Structural Soil™ in the Urban Environment. Urban Horticulture Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
  • Beven, Keith. 2012. In Rainfall-Runoff Modelling: The Primer. Second Edition, by Keith Beven. 398-448. Chichester, UK. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Breen, P., L. Denman, P. May, and S. Leinster. 2004. Street trees as stormwater treatment measures. In 2004 International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design – Cities as catchments 21-25 November 2004, 21-25 November 2004, Adelaide.
  • Breuer, L., K. Eckhardt, and H.-G. Frede. 2003. Plant parameter values for models in temperate climates. Ecological Modelling. 169:237-293.
  • Busiahn, Jacob, and Sean Peterson. 2013. All you need to Know about Community Gravel Beds. University of Minnesota Department of Forest Resources.
  • Cappiella, Karen, Tom Schueler, and Tiffany Wright. 2006. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 2. Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites. Second in a Three-Part Manual Series on Using Trees to Protect and Restore Urban Watersheds. Prepared for and published by: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry.
  • Center for Watershed Protection. 2006. Technical Memorandum 1 - Literature Review Research in Support of an Interim Pollutant Removal Rate for Street Sweeping and Storm Drain Cleanout Activities. A project supported by the U.S. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant CB-97322201-0
  • Cescatti, A. 2007. Indirect estimates of canopy gap fraction based on the linear conversion of hemispherical photographs methodology and comparison with standard thresholding techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143:1-12.
  • Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke, T.G. F. Kittel, R. Nemani, and S. W. Running. 1996. Sensitivity of a general circulation model to global changes in leaf area index. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:7393-7408.
  • Cheng, Lei, Zongxue Xu, Dingbao Wang, and Ximing Cai. 2011. Assessing interannual variability of evapotranspiration at the catchment scale using satellite‐based evapotranspiration data sets. Water Resources Research 47: W09509.
  • Churchill, D. J., A. J. Larson, M. C. Dahlgreen, J. F. Franklin, P. F. Hessburg, and J. A. Lutz. 2013. Restoring forest resilience: From reference spatial patterns to silvicultural prescriptions and monitoring. Forest Ecology and Management 291: 442-457.
  • Coder, Kim. 2007. Soil Compaction Stress and Trees: Symptoms, Measures, and Treatments. Warnell School Outreach Monograph WSFNR07-9.
  • Confalonieri, R., M. Foi, R. Casa, S. Aquaro, E. Tona, M. Peterle, A. Boldini, G. De Carli, A. Ferrari, G. Finotto, T. Guarneri, V. Manzoni, E. Movedi, A. Nisoli, L. Paleari, I. Radici, M. Suardi, D. Veronesi, S. Bregaglio, G. Cappelli, M.E. Chiodini, P. Dominonia, C. Francone, N. Frasso, T. Stella, and M. Acutis. 2013. Development of an app for estimating leaf area index using a smartphone. Truenss and precision determination and comparison with other indirect methods. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 96: 67-74.
  • Cowen W.F, Lee G.F. 1973. Leaves as a source of phosphorus. Environ Sci Technol 7:853–854.
  • CRA. Tools for Agro-Meteorology and Biophysical Modelling: Evapotranspiration.
  • Couenberg Els. A.M. 1993. Amsterdam Tree Soil. In: The Landscape Below Ground. Proceedings of an international workshop on tree root development in urban soils.
  • D'Arrigo, R. D., C. M. Malmstrom, G. C. Jacoby, S. O. Los, and D. E. Bunker. 2000. Correlation between maximum latewood density of annual tree rings and NDVI based estimates of forest productivity. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21: 2329-2336.
  • Davis, A.P; W. F. Hunt, G.R. Traver, and M. Clar. 2009 Bioretention Technology: Overview of Current Practice and Future Needs. J. Environ. Eng-ASCE. 135(3):109-117.
  • Day, S. D., and N. L. Bassuk. 1994. A review of the effects of soil compaction and amelioration treatments on landscape trees. Journal of Arboriculture 20:9-17.
  • Denman, Liz. 2006. Are Street Trees And Their Soils An Effective Stormwater Treatment Measure? The 7th National Street Tree Symposium.
  • Denman, Elizabeth C., Peter B. May, and Gregory M. Moore. 2011. The use of trees in urban stormwater Management. Trees, people and the built environment: Proceedings of the Urban Trees Research Conference. 13–14 April 2011. Hosted by The Institute of Chartered Foresters At The Clarendon Suites, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK Edited by Mark Johnston and Glynn Percival. Forestry Commission: Edinburgh.
  • Dorney JR. 1986. Leachable and total phosphorus in urban street tree leaves. Water Air Soil Pollut 28:439–443.
  • DTAH, Lead Consultant, ARUP, Engineering, and James Urban, Urban Trees + Soils Urban Forest Innovations, Arborist. 2013. Tree Planting Solutions in Hard Boulevard Surfaces Best Practices Manual. Project # A21065. Prepared for: City of Toronto.
  • Dwyer, John F.; H.W. Schroeder, J.J. Louviere, and D.H. Anderson. 1989. Urbanities [sic] Willingness to Pay for Trees and Forests in Recreation Areas. Journal of Arboriculture 15(10).
  • Dwyer, J. F.; Schroeder, H.W.; Gobster, P. H. 1991. The Significance of Urban Trees and Forests: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Values. Journal of Arboriculture 17(10).
  • Dwyer, J. F., D. J. Nowak, M. H. Noble, and S. M. Sisinni. 2000. Connecting people with ecosystems in the 21st centure: An assessment of our nation's urban forests. USDA Forest Service Technical Report, Forest Service, USDA, USDA Forest Service.
  • Eichhorn, J., and P. Roskams. 2013. Chapter 8 - Assessment of Tree Conditions. Developments in Environmental Science. 12:139-167.
  • Escobedo, F. J., and D. J. Nowak. 2009. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest. Landscape and Urban Planning 90:102-110.
  • Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB). 2009. Biofiltration Filter Media Guidelines (Version 3.01).
  • Fassman, EA, R. Simcock, and S. Wang. 2013. Media specification for stormwater bioretention devices, Prepared by Auckland UniServices for Auckland Council. Auckland Council technical report, TR2013/011.
  • Flint, A. L., and S. W. Childs. 1991. Use of the Priestly-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 56. pp247-260.
  • Foster, R. S., and J. Blaine. 1978. Urban tree survival: trees in the sidewalk. Journal of Arboriculture 4:14-17.
  • Gillman, J.H. and G.R. Johnson. 1999. Planting and Transplanting Trees and Shrubs. University of Minnesota Extension WW-03825.
  • Gilman, Edward F. 2011. Specifications for Planting Trees and Shrubs in the Southeastern U.S. Document ENH856. Environmental Horticulture, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
  • Gilman, E. 2011. Sample nursery stock specification for shade trees.
  • Gilman, Edward F. 2013. Sample planting specifications for trees. Environmental Horticulture Department, University of Florida Gainesville.
  • Gilman, Ed. 2011. Illustrated Guide to Pruning. 3rd edition. Cengage Learning: Independence, KY.
  • Gomez-Baggethun, E., and D. N. Barton. 2013. Classifying and valuing ecosystem services for urban planning. Ecological Economics 86:235-245.
  • Gong, A., W. Xiang, Q. Zhengjun, and H. Yong. 2013. A handheld device for leaf area measurement. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 98:74-80.
  • Gonzales, L. M., J. W. Williams, and J. O. Kaplan. 2008. Variations in leaf area index in northern and eastern North Americal over the past 21,000 years: a data-model comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews 27:1453-1466.
  • Grabosky, Jason, Edward Haffner, and Nina Bassuk. 2009. Plant Available Moisture in Stone-soil Media for Use Under Pavement While Allowing Urban Tree Root Growth. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35(5):271-278.
  • Green, S. R. 1993. Radiation balance, transpiration, and photosynthesis of an isolated tree. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 64:201-221.
  • Grimmond, C.S.B. and T.R. Oke. 1999. Evapotranspiration in Urban Areas. Proceedings of Impacts of Urban Growth on Surface Water and Groundwater Quality. Birmingham.
  • Gulliver, J. S., A. J. Erickson, and P. T. Weiss. 2010. Evaporation and Evapotranspiration Stormwater Treatment: Assessment and Maintenance. University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory.
  • Healy, R. W., and B. R. Scanlon. 2010. Estimating Groundwater Recharge. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Heisler, G.M. 1986. Energy Savings With Trees. Journal of Arboriculture 12:5:113-125.
  • Heisler, Gordon M. 1990. Tree plantings that save energy. In: Rodbell, Philip D., ed. Proceedings of the Fourth Urban Forestry Conference, October 15-19, 1989. St. Louis, MO. Washington, DC: American Forestry Association.
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  • Henderson, C.F.K. 2008. The Chemical and Biological Mechanisms of Nutrient Removal from Stormwater in Bioretention Systems. Thesis. Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University.
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References for general stormwater information

References for Unified Sizing Criteria




Original Stormwater Manual references

This page provides a list of references from the original Minnesota Stormwater Manual, published in 2005. More recent references are contained within the individual pages and sections of the manual as updates are made to the manual.

  • Aichinger, C., 2004. Understanding the West Nile Virus. Woodbury Bulletin (newspaper opinion page), August 11, 2004. Contact Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District, North St. Paul, MN.
  • Alexander, E.C. and Y. Gao, 2002. Copyrighted graphic of Minnesota Karst Lands.
  • Allen P. and R. Narramore. 1985. Bedrock controls on stream channel enlargement with urbanization, North Central Texas. Water Resources Bulletin. 21(6): 1037-1048.
  • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 2003. International database on pollutant removal performance of stormwater best management practices.
  • Andrews, W.J., J.R. Stark, A.L. Fong and P.E. Hanson, 1999. Ground-water quality along a flowpath in surficial outwash aquifer in the Upper Mississippi River Basin – The influence of land use. Hydrological Science and Technology, 15(1-4):66-75. Special Issue: 4thUSA/CIS Joint Conference, November 7-10, 1999, San Francisco. American Institute of Hydrology.
  • Aplikowski, S., J. Hafner, and B. Wilson. 2005. Minneapolis Chain of Lakes: A decade of Watershed Rehabilitation. Lakeline. Spring 2005.Aquafor Beech Ltd. 1999. Draft Final Stormwater Management Planning and Design Manual. Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
  • Arendt, R. 1997. Designing Open Space Subdivisions. Natural Lands Trust. Media, PA
  • Avinmelich, Y., J. McHenry and J. Ross. 1984. Decomposition of Organic Matter in Lake Sediments. Environmental Science and Technology.
  • Bäckström, M., 2002. Series of Papers in Doctorate Thesis, Luleå University of Technology.
  • Bäckström, M., 1999. Series of Papers in Licentiate Thesis, Luleå University of Technology.
  • Baker, D.G., W.W. Nelson and E.L. Kuehnast, 1979. Climate of Minnesota: Part XII – The Hydrologic Cycle and Soil Water. University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
  • Baker, J.M., 1997. Vanishing Ponds Not a Sure Sign of Spring. Agricultural Research, April, p.9.
  • Barodziej, W. and S. Blood. 2004. Shore Restoration of a High-use Urban Lake.
  • Bengtsson, L., 1981. Snowmelt-Generated Runoff in Urban Areas. In Proceedings, Second International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Urbana, Illinois, June 14-19, 1981, pp.444-451.
  • Bledsoe, B. 2001. Relationships of stream response to hydrologic changes. Linking Stormwater BMP Designs and Performance to Receiving Water Impacts Mitigation Proceedings. Snowmass, CO.
  • Booth, D. and P. Henshaw. 2001. Rates of channel erosion in small urban streams. Water Science and Application 2:17-38.
  • Booth, D. 1990. Stream channel incision following drainage basin urbanization. Water Resources Bulletin. 26(3): 407-417.
  • Bouwer, H. and R. C. Rice. 1989. Effect of Water Depth in Ground-water Recharge Basins on Infiltration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 115, No. 4, pp. 556-567.
  • Brown, E., D. Caraco and R. Pitt, 2004. Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination: A Guidance Manual for Program Development and Technical Assessment. Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD.
  • Brown, T. and J. Simpson. 2001. “Managing Phosphorus Inputs Into Lakes I: Determining the Trophic State of Your Lake.” Watershed Protection Techniques. 3 (4): 771-781. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Brown, W. and T. Schueler, 1997. Economics of stormwater best management practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD.
  • Burton, G. and R. Pitt. 2002. Stormwater effects handbook: a toolbox for watershed managers, scientists and engineers. CRC/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Busacker, G. 2004. Protecting Water Resources Based on a Collaborative Community Effort. AASHTO National Environmental Stewardship Competition Application.
  • Buttle, J.M., 1990. Effect of suburbanization upon snowmelt runoff. Hydrol. Sci. Jour., 35(3):285-302.
  • Buttle, J.M. and F. Xu, 1988. Snowmelt Runoff in Suburban Environments. Nordic Hydrology, 19:19-40.
  • Cappiella, K. 2005. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1: Conserving Trees at the Watershed Scale. Prepared for: USDA Forest Service. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Cappiella, K. 2005. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1: Conserving Trees at the Watershed Scale. Prepared for: USDA Forest Service. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Capiella, K, T. Schueler and T. Wright. 2005. Conserving and planting trees at development sites. USDA Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD
  • Cappiella, K., Schueler, T.R. and T. Wright. 2005. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual. Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. Newtown Square, PA.
  • Cappiella, K., Schueler, T.R. and T. Wright. 2005. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. Newtown Square, PA.
  • Capuccitti, D and W. Page, 2000. Stream response to stormwater management best management practices in Maryland. Maryland Department of the Environment. Final Deliverable for a US EPA 319 Grant.
  • Caraco, D. 2001. “Managing Phosphorus Inputs Into Lakes III: Evaluating the Impact of Watershed Treatment.” Watershed Protection Techniques. 3 (4): 791-796. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Caraco, D. and R. Claytor, 1997. Stormwater BMP Design Supplement for Cold Climates. Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, Maryland.
  • Caraco, D. and T. Brown. 2001. “Managing Phosphorus Inputs Into Lakes II: Crafting an Accurate Phosphorus Budget for Your Lake.” Watershed Protection Techniques. 3 (4): 782-790. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Carroll County, MD. 1996a. Draft Water Resource Management Manual.
  • Carroll County, MD. 1996b. Draft Water Resource Management Ordinance.
  • Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 1998. Better Site Design: a handbook for changing development rules in your community. US EPA. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 1998. Nutrient Loading From Conventional and Innovative Site Development. Prepared for: Chesapeake Research Consortium. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 1999. Nutrient loading from conventional and innovative site development. Chesapeake Research Consortium. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  • Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 2001. Special Issue on Urban Lake Management: Watershed Protection Techniques 3(4): 745-820.
  • Center for Watershed Protection (CWP). 2003. The impacts of impervious cover on aquatic systems. Watershed Protection Research Monograph No. 1. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD. 142 pp. 11: 165-206.
  • Chang, M., M. McBroom, R. Beasley. 2004. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution. Journal of Environmental Management. 73: 307-315.
  • Chicago Wilderness and Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission, 2003. Conservation Design Resource Manual.
  • Chollak, T and R. Rosenfield 1998. Guide for landscaping with compost amended soils. Department of Public Works. City of Redmond, WA
  • City of Minneapolis. 2004. City of Minneapolis Heritage Park: Near North Wetlands and Stormwater Management 2005 CIP Budget Documentation (and associated educational flyers).
  • City of Portland. 2004. Portland’s Stormwater Management Manual. Bureau of Environmental Services. Portland Oregon. www.cleanrivers-pdx.org/tech_resources/2004_swmm.htm
  • City of Seattle, 2003. How soil amendments and compost can aid in Salmon recovery.
  • Colbeck, S.C., 1981. A simulation of the enrichment of atmospheric pollutants in snow cover runoff. Water Res. Research, 17(5): 1383-1388.
  • Colbeck, S.C., 1991. The layered character of snow covers. Rev. Geophys., 29(1):81-96.
  • Commonwealth of Virginia, 2003. Vector Control: Mosquitoes and Storm Water Management. Stormwater Management Technical Bulletin No 8.
  • Conservation Toronto and Region, 2001. The Storm Water Pollution Prevention Handbook. Copublished with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
  • Covington, M. 2002. Modified Sand Filter Design (The Herring/Frock Method). Presented at Delaware Sediment and Stormwater 2002 Conference – The Race for Clean Water. Dover, DE.
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