• Adirondack Council. 2009. Low Sodium Diet: Curbing New York's Appetite for Damaging Road Salt, Elizabethtown, NY.
  • Amundsen, C.E., Håland, S., French, H., Roseth, R. and Kitterød, N. 2010. Environmental Damages Caused by Road Salt- A Literature Review. Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Report No. 2587.
  • Anning, D. W. and Flynn, M. E. 2014. Dissolved-Solids Sources, Loads, Yields, and Concentrations in Streams of the Conterminous United States. U. S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5012, 101 p.
  • Barr Engineering. Nine Mile Creek Watershed Chloride Total Maximum Daily Load Report. Rep. no. WQ-IW11-08E. Minneapolis: 2010.
  • Chapra, S. C., Dove, A., Rockwell, D. C., 2009. Great Lakes chloride trends: Long-term mass balance and loading analysis. Journal of Great Lakes Research 35 (2009) 272-284.
  • Collins, S. J. and Russell, R. W. 2009. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians. Environ. Pollut. 157:320-324.
  • Corsi, S. R., De Cicco, L. A., Lutz, M. A., Hirsch, R. M. 2015. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons. Science of the Total Environment 508: 488-497.
  • Corsi, S. R., Graczyk, D. J., Geis, S. W., Booth, N. L., and Richards, K. D. A Fresh Look at Road Salt: Aquatic Toxicity and Water-Quality Impacts on Local, Regional, and National Scales. Environmental Science & Technology 44.19 (2010): 7376-382.
  • Dietz, T. and Stern, P.C. 2002. New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information and Voluntary Measures. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  • Environment Canada. 2001. Priority substances list assessment report – road salts. Environment Canada, Health Canada, Minister of Public Works and Government Services 201, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
  • Evans, M. and Frick, C. 2001. The effects of road salts in stream, lake and wetland ecosystems. NWRI Contribution Series No. 01-000. National Water Research Institute, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
  • Eyles, N., Meriano, M., Chow-Fraser, P. 2013. Impacts of European settlement (1840-present) in a Great Lake watershed and lagoon: Frenchman’s Bay, Lake Ontario, Canada. Environ. Earth Science 68(8): 2211-2228.
  • Fortin Consulting. 2012a. Salt Application Rate for Parking Lots and Sidewalks. Memorandum to Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. March 3, 2012.
  • Fortin Consulting. 2012b. Targeting private applicators for educational purposes. Memorandum to Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. June 29, 2012.
  • Fortin Consulting. 2014. The Real Cost of Salt Use for Winter Maintenance in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Report prepared for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. August 2014.
  • Fortin Consulting, Inc. Memorandum. June 20, 2014.
  • Hem, J. D. 1992. Study and interpretation of chemical characteristics of natural water (3d ed.): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper.
  • Henningsgaard, Bruce P., P.E. Chloride Treatment. Memorandum. October 25, 2012.
  • Karraker, N. E., Gibbs, J. P., and Vonesh, J.R. 2008. Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians. Ecol. Appl., 18:724-734.
  • Kelly, W.R., 2008. Long-term trends in chloride concentrations in shallow aquifers near Chicago. Ground Water 46(5): 772-281.
  • Kelly, W. R., Panno, S. V. and Hackley, K. 2012. The Sources, Distribution, and Trends of Chloride in the Waters of Illinois. Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Prairie Research Institute.
  • Kelting, D.L. and Laxson, C. L. 2010. Review of Effects and Costs of Road Deicing with Recommendations for Winter Road Management in the Adirondack Park. Adirondack Watershed Institute Report # AWI2010-01.
  • Kunkel, K.E, L.E. Stevens, S.E. Stevens, L. Sun, E. Janssen, D. Wuebbles, S.D. Hilberg, M.S. Timlin, L. Stoecker, N.E. Westcott, and J.G. Dobson, 2013: Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S., NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3, 95 pp.
  • Langen, T.A., M. Twiss, T. Young, K. Janoyan, J. Curtis Stager, J. Osso Jr., H. Prutzman, and B. Green. 2006. Environmental impacts of winter road management at the Cascade Lakes and Chapel Pond- The Final Report. Clarkson Center for the Environment Report #1.
  • "Metro Chloride Project." Team Meeting Notes 3/17/10.
  • Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). 1993. The use of selected deicing materials on Michigan roads: Environmental and economic impacts.
  • Minnesota Local Road Research Board, Mn/DOT Research Services Section and Office of Maintenance, August 2005. Minnesota Snow and Ice Control Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators. Manual number 2005-1.
  • MPCA . 2013. The condition of Minnesota’s groundwater, 2007-2011. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul, MN.
  • Mullaney, J. R., Lorenz, D. L., Arntson, A. D., 2009, Chloride in groundwater and surface water in areas underlain by the glacial aquifer system, northern United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5086, 41 p.
  • Murray, D. M. and Ernst, U. F. 1976. An Economic Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Highway Deicing. EPA-600/2-76-105. EPA Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory. Cincinnati, OH.
  • New York State Department of Transportation Press Release. ‘NYSDOT Recognizes Revegetation Work Done on Route 73: Multi-Agency Effort Improves Corridor Aesthetics and Reduces Impacts of Salt Usage.”
  • Novotny, E. V., Murphy, D., and Stefan, H. G. 2008. Increase of urban lake salinity by road de- icing salt, Sci. Total Environ., 406:131-144.
  • Novotny, V., Muehring, D. Zitomer, D. H., Smith, D. W., and Facey, R. 1998. Cyanide and metal pollution by urban snowmelt: impact of deicing compounds. Wat. Sci. Tech. 38(10):223-230.
  • Sander, A., Novotny, E., Mohseni, O. and Stefan, H. 2007. Inventory of Road Salt Uses in the Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan Area. University of Minnesota St. Anthony Fall Laboratory Engineering, Environmental and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Project Report No. 503. Prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation.
  • Sassan, D, and Kahl, S. 2007. Salt Loading Due to Private Winter Maintenance Practices. Plymouth State University, Center for the Environment, Plymouth, NH.
  • Shingle Creek Watershed Management Commission (WMC). Shingle Creek Chloride TMDL Implementation Plan. Wenck File #1240. Maple Plain: Wenck Associates, 2007.
  • Shingle Creek Watershed Management Commission (WMC). 2004. Shingle Creek Chloride TMDL. Wenck Associates, Inc. file 1240-34.
  • Sohanghpurwala, A. A. 2008. Cost of Winter Maintenance on Infrastructure. Presentation at the 7th Annual Road Salt Symposium. Freshwater Society, Fortin Consulting and University of MN Center for Transportation Studies, Feb. 5, 2008, Brooklyn Center, MN.
  • Stefan, H., Novotny, E., Sander, A., and Mohseni, O. 2008. Study of Environmental Effects of Deicing Salt on Water Quality in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Report No. MN/RC 2008-42.
  • Transportation Research Board (TRB). 1991. Highway Deicing, Comparing Salt and Calcium Magnesium Acetate. Report 235,
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003. Drinking Water Advisory: Consumer Acceptability Advice and Health Effects Analysis on Sodium. EPA 822-R-03-00. EPA Office of Water, Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Washington, DC.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What Can Cause Tapwater to Taste Like Salt. EPA web site:. (accessed June 13, 2014).
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sodium in Drinking Water. EPA web (accessed June 13, 2014).
  • Vitaliano, D. F. 1992. An Economic Assessment of the Social Costs of Highway Salting and the Efficiency of Substituting a New Deicing Material. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11-3 397-418.
  • Wenck. 2009. Phase 1 Chloride Feasibility Study for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.
  • Xian, G., Homer, C., Dewitz, J., Fry, J., Hossain, N., and Wickham, J., 2011. The change of impervious surface area between 2001 and 2006 in the conterminous United States. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 77(8): 758-762.


Related pages

This page was last edited on 18 May 2018, at 19:15.

Template:Footer

/* Manually replaced by abbott Aug 6 '21 */